A Practical Grammar of the Sanskṛit Language: Arranged with Reference to the Classical Languages of Europe for the Use of English Students
Oxford University Press, 1857 - 369 pàgines
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2d Fut 3d Pret 3d sing ablative according accusative added adjectives adverbs affix Atmane base becomes beginning Bened bodha called Causal cause changed combination comes common Compare compound Cond conjugation consonant crude base declension declined dependent derived dropped dual English examples excepting express feminine final formation four Freq frequently future give given Grammar Greek imperative inflection initial inserted joined kind language Latin lengthened letters mark masc masculine nasal neut neuter nominative Note nouns Observe optionally Parasmai participle passive Past indecl Past pass plural potential preceded prefixed prep prepositions Pres present preterite primitive pronoun reduplicated rejected relative remains roots ending rules Sanskrit sense sentence short Similarly sometimes sound substantives substituted syllable tenses terminations third usually verbs vowel written
Pàgina 54 - These are called, 1. nominative ; 2. accusative ; 3. instrumental ; 4. dative ; 5. ablative ; 6. genitive ; 7. locative ; 8.
Pàgina viii - PANINI'S arrangement is simple; but numerous exceptions and frequent digressions have involved it in much seeming confusion. The two first lectures (the first section especially, which is in a manner the key of the whole grammar) contain definitions ; in the three next are collected the affixes, by which verbs and nouns are inflected. Those which appertain to verbs occupy the third lecture : the fourth and fifth contain such as are affixed to nouns. The remaining three lectures treat of the changes...
Pàgina viii - Sutras renders them in the highest degree obscure; even with the knowledge of the key to their interpretation, the student finds them ambiguous. In the application of them, when understood, he discovers many seeming contradictions; and, with every exertion of practised memory, he must experience the utmost difficulty in combining rules dispersed in apparent confusion through different portions of Pdnini's eight lectures.
Pàgina 321 - Let the student, therefore, accurately distinguish between the infinitive of Sanskrit and that of Latin and Greek. In these languages we have the infinitive made the subject of a proposition ; or, in other words, standing in the place of a nominative, and an accusative case often admissible before it. We have it also assuming different forms, to express present, past, or future time, and completeness or incompleteness in the progress of the action. The...
Pàgina viii - The endless pursuit of exceptions and of limitations so disjoins the general precepts, that the reader cannot keep in view their intended connexion and mutual relation. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the clew of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hands.
Pàgina 321 - ... it, and can only express indeterminate time and incomplete action. Wherever it occurs, it must be considered as the object, and never the subject of some verb expressed or understood. As the object of the verb, it may be regarded as equivalent to a verbal substantive, in which the force of two...
Pàgina 327 - having heard this, having thought to himself " this is certainly a dog," having abandoned the goat, having bathed, he went to his own house.
Pàgina x - Sanskrit, may be traced to the labour imposed, of thoroughly mastering these rules at the first entrance upon the study of the language. They form, as it were, a mountain of difficulty to be passed at the very commencement of the journey ; and the learner cannot be convinced that when once surmounted, the ground beyond may be more smooth than in other languages, the ingress to which is comparatively easy.
Pàgina vii - ... language has many students in this country ; and, that being the case, we are not surprized that this grammar should be preferred to others, since Mr. Williams has aimed at doing away with the cumbrous method of the grammarians of India, which was too often followed by his predecessors. He says : — " It is to be regretted that the Pandits of India should have overlaid their system, possessing, as it does, undeniable excellencies, with a network of mysticism. Had they designed to keep the key...