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proportion, also, to the other professional classes in the community, the clergy of Norway are richly endowed, and the church has always been the highest profession in the country, that to which all talent is naturally directed. Law and medicine do not, as in Scotland, withdraw youth of promising abilities from the clerical profession. It is a necessary consequence, that candidates are educated up to its value, and estimation in society.
In this part of Norway the most eminent preacher is Bishop Bugge. His manner of delivery is singularly impressive, even to a stranger who can but imperfectly follow his discourse.
It is calm, very earnest, yet almost conversational; and is a style of public speaking very similar to that of Dr. Chalmers : his reputation as a preacher is similar.
It is a peculiarity in all Lutheran countries, which strikes the traveller, especially from Scotland, that the evening of the Sunday is not passed, as with us, in quiet and stillness at least, if not in devotional exercises. He must be a very superficial observer, however, who ascribes this to a want of religious feeling. It arises from the peculiar and, in the pure Lutheran Church, universally received interpretation of the Scriptural words, that “the evening and the morning made the first day.” The evening of Saturday and the morning of Sunday make the seventh day, or Sabbath, according to the Lutheran Church. This interpretation is so fully established, and interwoven with their thinking and acting, that entertainments, dances, card parties, and all public amusements,
take place regularly on Sunday evenings. A Lutheran minister gives a party on Sunday evening at his house, at which you find music, dancing, and cards, without more scruple, or conception that there is anything objectionable, than a Presbyterian minister has when he eats a slice of mutton for dinner on a Friday, and would equally think it superstitious to object to it. We are very apt, in religious concerns, to measure our neighbour's judgment by our own.
Yet, whether this interpretation of the Scriptural words defining the Sabbath, be theologically right or wrong, it is politically wrong, and injurious to society. The half-day of Saturday is little regarded. The labourer cannot leave his work, make himself clean, and go to a distant church, for a portion of a day. The half-day of Sunday, also, is more liable to be encroached upon than if the whole were, as with us, a day of rest, on which no manner of work was to be done.
The progress of education among the working classes in Britain will probably make it necessary to unite the two plans at no distant time; to make the half of Saturday a period of rest by political institution, as well as the whole of Sunday by divine institution. The educated working man in Britain is, at present, in a worse condition, in consequence of his education, than the untaught labourer, who has only his animal wants to supply. Take the most simple case. The educated working man generally wishes to read a portion of the Scriptures daily in his family. This is surely the most simple
and immediate result of education. He must occupy some portion of time in doing so, over and above the time which his family, in common with the families of all the ignorant and uneducated of his fellow-labourers, must take for the ordinary business of life, for sleeping, cooking, eating, washing, marketing, and such household occupations. But this time will cost him money, or money's worth. It cannot well be less than half an hour, including the assembling of the family, if he is to read at all. Now half an hour a day comes to three hours a week, and in half a year, of twenty-five working weeks, it comes to no less than one week, of six working days of twelve hours; and by so much, by one week's work in twenty-five, can the untaught labourer undersell the educated one in the labour market. It is this
. advantage of uneducated labour which it seems to be the object of trades' unions and combinations to exclude. The educated labouring man of the present day is, in fact, well entitled to say to the rest of the community,-You have educated me, you have given me the wants, and tastes, and habits of a moral, religious, thinking being; you must give me leisure to use these endowments without prejudice to my means of subsistence; otherwise, you have sunk my condition below that of
fellowlabourer, who requires only what is indispensably necessary for existence. It is very possible, that when the formation of trades' unions, for raising their rate of wages, lessening the number of working hours, and such objects as are scarcely com
patible with the unrestrained productive power of capital employed in manufactories, is traced to its causes, these will be found to be intimately comnected with the wants and habits of a people advancing in mental culture.
It is very possible, that a day may come when it will be necessary to decide whether the education of the people of Great Britain shall be abandoned, as incompatible with the utmost productive powers of labour ; or those powers, as called into action by capital, be regulated by laws. The uneducated man can work fourteen hours a day, having no demands upon his time, but for food and rest; while the other cannot exceed twelve hours, if he is to enjoy any benefit or gratification as an educated man. This dilemma, in fact, exists now; although Lord Brougham, Mr. Hume, and the other friends of the education of the people, are afraid to look it in the face. The uneducated labourer reduces the educated labourer to work the same number of hours that he works, in every trade; and that number is not compatible with any of the purposes or uses of education, not even that of giving religious or moral instruction to his own family. If the Church of England were to make good a claim on the half of Saturday, preserving at the same time the whole of Sunday, as at present, and make it a period of rest from all work, it would be a remedy for the hard fate of the educated working man.
THE MIDDLE CLASS.-BALL AND SUPPER --LOYALTY.-JEALOUSY OF NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE.-KING'S STYLE.—CARL. III. OR CARL. XIV. ?-BUDSTICK. -HUE AND CRY, REMARKABLE LAND-SLIP-PEASANTRY.UDAL PROPERTY.-UDAL LAWS-EARLY MATURITY OF UDAL SYSTEM.-CIVILISATION OF THE NORTHERN INVADERS.-SCALDS. -THE GREY GOOSE-ITS ENACTMENTS-JURY TRIAL.-ITS ORIGIN IN UDAL LAW.- PRESENT ADMINISTRATION OF LAW. COURT OF ARBITRATION.-SORENSKRIVERS' COURT.-JURY TRIAL. CHRISTIAN V.-LAW BOOK.-LIBERAL INSTITUTIONS FOR 1687.
IRELAND AND NORWAY. — ENGLAND AND DENMARK PUNISHMENT OF DEATH ABOLISHED.LOSS OF HONOUR AN EFFECTIVE PUNISHMENT.-STIFTS AMT COURT.-THE HOIESTE RET COURT A PART OF THE STATE.-PECULIAR PRINCIPLE OF RESPONSIBILITY OF JUDGES.
Levanger, January 1835.— I was invited to join an entertainment given on the 26th of this month, in honour of the King's birth-day. I was glad of the invitation, as the party consisted of the tradesmen and dealers in the little town; a class distinct in society from the gentry of the country. These distinctions, although not founded on birth or privilege, there being no nobility or privileged class --nor on fortune, as the peasant proprietors have estates, and houses and means of living, equal to the highest of the community, -are, notwithstanding, as exactly observed here as in the most aristocratic countries. Education, manners, the belonging to the class of people of condition, that is, to the cultivated and educated part of the community,