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the functionary naturally felt himself the delegate of the master. The interest or accommodation of the public was a secondary consideration. The old officers, bred in this school, cannot understand the influence of public opinion, and feel rather awkward when summoned before this tribunal, perhaps by an anonymous writer, to answer for real and obvious errors in their official conduct. The temperate but firm spirit with which these controversies are carried on, the absence of any outrage on the private feelings of public men, even when their public conduct is attacked or exposed, do honour to the good taste and good sense of the nation, and prove that a press as free as that of the United States, may exist without scurrility or brutal violation of the sanctity of private life. Such newspapers as the American people read would not find editors or readers in this country. The people are advanced beyond that state, in which nothing is intelligible to them that is not mixed up with party and personal feelings. This sound state of the public mind, and of the press, may be ascribed in a great measure to the influence of the leading newspapers.

The only restriction which the executive government attempts to exercise on the periodical pressand the attempt shows a great want of tact—is that some conceived to be in a strain friendly to the views of government are allowed by special royal permission to be sent free of postage, whilst others, without such permission, must pay that tax.

It was proposed in the last Storthing, that all periodical publications should be allowed a free circulation through the post-office; and the measure was only negatived by a small majority, for a reason that does honour to the Storthing. They had already voted the post-office revenue in toto, as part of the ways and means applicable during the ensuing three years to the purposes to which the executive government applies this branch of revenue. The majority then did not consider it fair to burden, or render less productive, any branch of these ways and means, by conditions not contemplated when previously voted. They have shown themselves thus a right-thinking, fair-dealing people. It is not doubted that the next Storthing will burden the post-office with the free conveyance of all newspapers before granting its revenue. It seems, therefore, ill judged to make a matter of favour of what will probably soon be made a matter of right.

In Sweden, the press is under a very strict censorship. It is somewhat amusing to see published in the Norwegian newspapers the articles for which, in the sister kingdom, the publisher has been prosecuted, his newspaper suppressed, his business, and the bread of many depending on it, interrupted, as if the peace of empires had been violated; yet here the same articles are, as matter of course, given at large, commented on, circulated, read, and forgotten, without producing the slightest ill consequence.

Prosecutions at the in

stance of government have been attempted, as in other countries, against the editors of newspapers ; but the ground law is distinct, as to what constitutes an actionable offence against church, state, or individuals, in printed and published matter; and a peculiar principle in the jurisprudence of this country, which I shall endeavour to explain at another time, makes the judge responsible for, and obliged to defend, as a party, the correctness of his legal decision before the Supreme Court, and that court, a constituent part of the state, independent both of the executive and legislative, rendering it impossible, which it is not, perhaps, in Great Britain, that judges, in their decisions upon political offences, should be swayed by political feelings and party-spirit. Such prosecutions have, accordingly, in every instance, been determined in this country on the most impartial principles, without any leaning either towards government or towards popular feeling.

Besides newspapers, there are a considerable number of periodical and occasional works published. There is a Penny Magazine in great circulation ; the matter, and even the plates, I believe, taken, or borrowed, from its English namesake; and there is another weekly magazine upon the same cheap plan. There are several monthly journals on literary, antiquarian, agricultural, and military subjects; and in almost every newspaper there is the announcement of some new work or translation. This gives a favourable impression of the advance of the mind in this country. The literature that can be strictly called Norwegian may not as yet be of a very high class, compared to the standard works of other countries; but there are attempts which at last may reach excellence,and literature is but young in Norway.

CHAPTER IV.

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THEATRICAL REPRESENTATIONS.-HOLBERG, WINTER.-SLEDGE

DRIVING.SNOW-SKATING.-LAPLANDERS. REINDEER VENISON. REINDEER FARMING. EXPENSIVE WEDDINGS. BETROTHALS.-CHECKS ON POPULATION.--HOUSEMEN.-ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN.-THEIR CONDITION IN NORWAY.-LIGHT AND DARKNESS IN WINTER SUBLIME.-ENGLISH POOR-RATES. -USE OF COAL INSTEAD OF WOOD FOR FUEL. EFFECT ON THE CONDITION OF THE POOR.-FAMILY ROOM OR HALL OF A NORWEGIAN HOUSE IN THE MORNING.-STATE OF MANNERS AMONG THE PEOPLE.FORMS OF POLITENESS.STATION OF THE FEMALE SEX IN SOCIETY FEMALE EMPLOYMENTS. SMALL ESTATES.-NUMBER OF LANDHOLDERS IN SCOTLAND AND NORWAY COMPARED.-THE EFFECT ON THE CONDITION OF THE FEMALES OF THE SMALL ESTATES.-BEREND ISLAND COALS.WHITE BEARS. - THE FAIR.-SOBRIETY CRIMES. YULE.-NORWEGIAN ENTERTAINMENTS.ARRIVAL OF A SLEDGE PARTY. SEASE AND UNIFORMITY OF LIVING, NORWEGIAN CHURCH.INCOMES.EDUCATION.-NO DISSENT.-CONFIRMATION SUNDAY.- OBSERVANCE IN THE LUTHERAN CHURCH.EDUCATED LABOURERS IN ENGLAND IN A WORSE CONDITION THAN UNEDUCATED. -REMEDY.

Levanger, October, 1834.—The. Norwegians are fond of theatrical representations. They are in that stage of mental culture in which the drama flourishes. In the modern state of society in Europe it has lost its importance; and the present generation, when reading the works of writers of the last age can scarcely comprehend, how men of sense should then have treated it as an important national object, exercising an extensive in

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