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It may be stated once for all, that the great object of quarantine laws is the separating of those affected, or suspected to be affected with an infectious distemper, from those who are not, and nothing would be so salutary or absolutely necessary as instantly separating the sick from those who are well.
The following precautions should also be attended to :
The clothes of the sick should at all times, when changed, be removed by tongs, and not by handling, and should be put into cold water and boiled for an hour, and afterwards well washed in washing machines, and then fumigated; or they may be baked in an oven; but the safer mode would be to have them destroyed, especially if not valuable.
Those who attend about the person of the sick should remain as short a space of time as is consistent with their duty, and to avoid as much as possible all contact with his person or his bedding, clothes, &c. And they might be furnished with gloves made of oiled silk, as well as dresses made of the same article. The cup or glass out of which he drinks should be immediately plunged into water or vinegar, as well as any article he touches or uses. Whatever he leaves of his meals should be burnt or wholly destroyed. The excrementitious discharges should also be received into cold water, and instantly removed out of the room. If the sick die, he should be immediately wrapped in oiled cloth or a tarpaulin, and be speedily buried at the depth of six or seven feet.
With respect to the bed and bedding upon which the sick has died, it would be best to have it burnt immediately; at all events, it must on no account be used till it has been baked in an oven for twelve hours (being rolled up and removed with every possible care, that it be as little handled as possible). It should be afterwards exposed to the open air for at least fourteen days before it is again used.
Furniture consisting of chairs, bedsteads, &c. should be scoured and fumigated with sulphur and saw-dust for twenty-four hours, first removing every person out of the apartment, as no living creature can exist in the fumes for any length of time.
Ships and apartments might be fumigated in like manner, and afterwards purified by the admission of as much air as is practicable, and also by scraping and washing the walls with lime-water, and the floors with plenty of cold water.
And lastly, we cannot inculcate too much the fact, that the best preventive of infectious disease, and the surest mode of diminishing the effects of its contagion, is by the free admission of pure air, (even in the room of the sick, who, to admit of its free circulation, should not have curtains) by the greatest attention to cleanliness, and by the removal of the rest of the people to a place of observation.
PASSENGERS IN SHIPS.
If any passenger or other person on board any vessel or boat shall, upon being questioned by any officer of the customs whether he has any foreign goods upon his person, or in his possession, deny the same, and any such goods shall, after such denial, be discovered upon his person, or in his possession, such goods shall be forfeited, and such person shall forfeit treble the value of such goods. But before any person can be searched, he may require to be taken before a justice of the peace, or a superior officer of the customs. See SMUGGLING, 6 Geo. IV. c. 108. $ 37 and 38. Part II. c. III.
Si un voyageur ou autre individu à bord d'un bâtiment est interrogé par un employé de la douane, s'il a de la marchandise étrangère sur sa personne, ou en sa possession, et réponde négativement; et si après ce déni, on découvre quelque marchandise de cette sorte sur sa personne, ou en sa possession, elle sera confisquée; et le dit individu sera condamné à payer une amende de trois fois la valeur de la marchandise saisie. Mais avant que d'être fouillé, tout individu dans le cas ci-dessus, peut réclamer d'être méné devant un juge de paix, ou devant un officier supérieur de la douane.
ANZEIGE. Wenn irgend ein reisender oder sonst jemand, an bord eines schiffes oder botes, von einem zoll-bedienten befragt wird, ob er fremde waaren bey sich oder in seinem besitz habe, und er dieses läugnet, und darnach dennoch solche waaren bey ihm oder in seinem besitz entdeckt werden, soll derselbe solcher waaren verlustig seyn, und noch überdem eine geld busse von deren drey fachen werth erlegen.
Bevor aber irgend jemand sich braucht durchsuchen zu lassen, darf er verlangen, vor einem friedens-richter oder einem ober zoll-beamten geführt zu werden.
The former laws relating to this subject were repealed by 6 Geo. IV. c. 105, and the regulations by 6 Geo. IV. c. 116, having been subsequently repealed by the 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 19, the following will be found to be the enactments now in force.
9 Geo. IV. c. 21.
An Act to regulate the carriage of passengers in Merchant Vessels from
the United Kingdom to the Continent and Islands of North AMERICA. (Passed May 23, 1828.)
Number of passengers, &c.—No ship shall sail from any port or place in the United Kingdom, or in the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, or Sark, or in the Isle of Man, on any voyage to or for any port or place in his Majesty's possession on the continent or islands of North America, with more persons on board than in the proportion of three persons for every four tons of the registered burthen of such ship, the master and crew being included ;-and no ship registered as having more than one deck shall carry any passengers upon any such voyage, unless she shall be of the height of five feet and a half at the least between decks ;-and no ship registered as having only one deck shall carry any passengers upon any such voyage, unless a platform shall be laid beneath such deck, in such a manner as to afford a space of the height of at least five feet and a half :-Provided always, that two children each being under the age of fourteen years, or three children each being under the age of seven years, or one child being under the age of twelve months with the mother of such child, shall in all cases be computed as one person for the purposes hereinbefore and hereinafter mentioned. $ 1.
Water and provisions. —No ship carrying passengers shall clear out for such voyage from any port in the United Kingdom, or the islands "of Guernsey, &c. until there shall be actually on board such ship good and wholesome provisions for the use and consumption of the said passengers, to the amount or in the proportion following, viz. a supply of pure water to the amount of fifty gallons for every person on board such ship, the master and crew included, (such water being carried in sweet casks ;) and a supply of bread, biscuit, oatmeal, or bread stuffs, to the amount of fifty pounds weight, at the least, for every passenger on board such ship. $ 2.
Stores.—No ship proceeding on any such voyage, and having on board the whole number of passengers allowed by this act, shall carry any part of her cargo, provisions, water, or sea stores between decks ; $ 3.
15 Sept. 1831. It having been represented to the commissioners of his Majesty's customs that the regulations prescribed by the act of the 9 Geo. IV. c. 21, for regulating the carriage of passengers in merchant vessels from the United Kingdom to the continent aud islands of North America, have been violated in several instances, particularly in not having the necessary supplies of provisions and water, and in the conveyance of greater numbers of passengers than by the said act is allowed ;—the said commissivoers hereby give notice, that they will, in any future infraction of the act, enforce in the strictest manner the penalties which may be incurred for any breach of the same.
By order of the commissioners,
but it shall be lawful for any such ship, not having on board the whole number of passengers so allowed, to carry between decks, in respect of every passenger wanting of that number, any goods, provisions, water or sea stores, not occupying more than three cubical feet in space.
List of passengers to be delivered to the collector of customs, &c.The master of every ship carrying passengers on any such voyage shall, before clearing out from any port or place in the United Kingdom, or the said islands of Guernsey, &c. deliver to the collector or other principal officers of his Majesty's customs at such port, a list in writing, specifying, as accurately as may be, the names, ages, and professions or occupations of all and every the passengers on board such ship, with the name of the port or place at which he hath contracted to land each ; and such collector or other chief officer shall thereupon deliver to the master a counterpart of such list, signed by him, the said collector, &c.; and the said master shall exhibit the said counterpart to the collector or other chief officer of his Majesty's customs at each and every port or place in his Majesty's possessions at which the said passengers or any of them shall be landed, and shall deposit the same with such collector or chief officer of customs at his final port of discharge in the said possessions. § 4.
Penalties. If the master of any ship carrying passengers on any such voyage shall, without their previous consent, land or put on shore, or cause to be landed or put on shore, any passenger at any port or place other than the port or place at which he may have contracted to land such passenger, he (the said master) shall incur a penalty of twenty pounds for each passenger so landed or put on shore, to be recovered in a summary way before any two justices of the peace in and for any province, district, county, or place in any of his Majesty's possessions on the continent or islands of North America, on the complaint of any such person, and to be levied by warrants under the hands and seals of such justices, upon the goods of any such offender. $ 5.
Misdemeanour, when master of ship guilty of-And if any ship carrying passengers on any such voyage, shall carry any number of passengers exceeding by more than one person in fifty the proportion allowed by this act ;-or if the cargo, provisions, water, or sea stores of any such ship, or any part thereof, shall be carried between decks, contrary to the provisions hereinbefore in that behalf made ;-or if any ship shall clear out or put to sea, not having on board such water and good and wholesome provisions as aforesaid, for the use and consumption of the said passengers to the amount or in the proportion herein before required ;-or if any such ship shall be cleared out from any port or place in the United Kingdom before such lists of passengers have been delivered to such officer as aforesaid ;-or if any such list shall be wil. fully false, the master of the said ship shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanour, and may be prosecuted, tried, and convicted for the same, either in the county in the United Kingdom from which the ship shall bave sailed on such voyage, or in any other county of the United Kingdom, or in either of the said islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or in the Isle of Man, from which the ship shall have sailed on such voyage, or in any of his Majesty's possessions abroad, to which such ship shall have sailed on such voyage :-Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall take away or abridge any right of suit or action which may accrue to any passenger in any such ship as aforesaid, or to any other person, in respect of any breach of any contract made by or on the behalf of any such passenger or other person with the master or owner thereof. $ 6.
Bond to be given-limitation of actions.-Before any ship carrying passengers shall clear out for any such voyage from any port or place in the United Kingdom, or in the said islands of Guernsey, &c. the master shall enter into a bond to his Majesty, with one good and sufficient surety, (to be approved by the collector or other chief officer of customs at such port,) in the sum of one thousand pounds, the condition of which bond shall be, that the said ship is seaworthy, and that all and every the rules and regulations made and prescribed by this act for the carriage of passengers shall be well and truly performed before and during such intended voyage, and that all penalties, fines, and for. feitures which the master of such ship may be sentenced or adjudged to pay for or in respect of the breach or nonperformance, before or during such voyage, of any such rules and regulations, shall be well and truly paid : Provided always, that such bond shall be without stamps; and that no such bond shall be put in suit, and that no prosecution, suit action, or information shall be brought under or by virtue of this act, or upon or by reason of the breach of any of the provisions thereof, in any of his Majesty's possessions abroad after the expiration of twelve calendar months next succeeding the commencement of any such voyage as aforesaid, nor in the United Kingdom or any of the islands before mentioned, after the expiration of twelve calendar months next after the return of the master to the port or place from which he sailed on such voyage. $7.
This act not to extend to Post Office ships--nor to the Bahama Islands, nor to the West Indies. $ 8, 9.
4 Geo. IV. c. 88.
An Act for regulating Vessels carrying Passengers between Great Bri
tain and Ireland. Number of passengers.— It shall not be lawful for the master of any vessel employed in the conveyance of passengers between Great Britain and Ireland, being of any burthen less than two hundred tons,* to have or take on board, or to carry or couvey any greater number of persons than twenty as passengers from any port in Great Britain to any port in Ireland, or from any port in Ireland to any port in Great Britain, (un. less a licence for the conveyance of passengers shall have been previously granted to the owner or master of such ship, under the hand of the collector, comptroller, or other chief officer of the customs, at the port from which such vessel shall sail from Great Britain to Ireland, and from Ireland to Great Britain respectively ;) and it shall be lawful for every such collector, &c. to grant and sign such licence without fee or reward, in such form and under such regulations as shall be directed by the commissioners of customs : Provided that no such licence shall be granted by such collector, &c. except upon such certificate as shall be required by the commissioners of the customs, that such vessel is seaworthy and properly found in all respects; and every such licence shall
* By 9 Geo. IV. c. 76.9 29, it is enacted, that for the purposes of 4 Geo. IV. c. 88, intituled “ An Act for regulating vessels carrying passengers between Great Britain and Ireland,” every steam-vessel which is of the register tonnage of one hundred and forty tons or upwarus shall be deemed to be a vessel of two hundred tons at least.