Imatges de pÓgina


of the ancient grammarians of India, Sanskrt grammar rose to the dignity of a science and must be studied as such. To quote the words of the learned Doctor again "its study possesses an educational value of the same kind as that of Euclid and not much inferior to it in degree. For to make up a particular form the mind of the student bas to go through a certain process of synthesis." To split up therefore a general rule of the ancient Indian grammarians into a number of the partienlar cases it comprehends, as is done by some modern writers on Sanskrt grammar, is not therefore to build up but to destroy, not to simplify the difficulties of the student but to embarrass him. For a grammar then to be practical and correct, in my humble opinion, it must be based on indigenous works understood and studied in their genuine spirit. In writing the various chapters of this book (except the one on the Conjugation of Verbs) I have closely followed Párini as explained by Bhattoji Dikshit ( the Kåslikà of Váman being also occasionally referred to ). Many of the rules given are a translation of the sútras of Pàvini, much matter being thus compressed into a small space. The original sùtras, where necessary, are given in footnotes as helps to memory. Sandhis and declensions are very fully treated. Compounds which play such an important part in Sanskit literature, and which, yet, are very summarily despatched in many grammars, have received special attention, almost everything in the Siddhanta Kaumudî being included. The formation of feminine bases which

. is not considered separately in other grammars has been considered here in a separate chapter. (VI). The seventh chapter deals with the Taddhita aftises (i.e. affixes forming secondary nominal bases ) which for the convenience of the student and the occasional referer bave been arranged here in


an alphabetical order, each followed by a number of the des rivatives formed by it. The question of gender which so much perplexes the foreigner has been dealt with in the eighth chapter, while the ninth treats of “indeclinables. The first nine chapters, thus form what may be called the first part of the book, in as much as they deal with all that relates to the noun (declinable and indeclinable). Bit a special feature of the present granmar is the chapter on the "Conjugation of Verbs.' No part of Sanskrt grammar is more difficult and perplexing and therefore more calculated to tire out the patience of the young student, than the "Conjugation of Verbs.' It is therefore written with particular attention to the student's difficulties. The general rules given are amply illustrated with examples. Almost all the roots which are likely to puzzle the student in being conjugated in a particular tense or mood have been fully conjugated. In the eleventh chapter all the verbs which change their Pada when preceded by particular prepositions are given in an alphabetical order with illustrations where necessary. Two more chapters one on syntax and the other on prosods, have also been added. The chapter on syntax contains almost everything given in the first 20 chapters of Prof. Apte’s Guide to Sanskrt Composition,' the same original having been followed by both. The chapter on prosody

on the Chhandomanjarî and the Vittaratnâkara. The book closes with a long list of verbs ( added at the suggestion of my publishers ) containing almost all the roots in Sanskrt and giving the 3rd per. sing, in the important tenses and moods.

Thus it will be seen that I have spared no pains to make the book as useful and as complete as possible. Also much of the technical terms used in original Sanskrt grammars

is based

as the student always meets with in Sanskrt commentaries are given in their proper places with their explanation.

In writing my grammar I have occasionally used Monier Williams's, Benefy's, Dr. Kielhorn's and Whitney's grammars to all of whom I make ample acknowledgements. My special thanks are due to Dr. Bhándàrkar whose two books of Sankst were my chief guide in writing out the chapter on the 'Conjugation of Verbs,' and to the late Prof. Apte to whose excellent ‘Guide to Sankrt Composition’ I am indebted for some of the illustrations given in the Thirteenth chapter. I have also to thank my friend Mr. Uddhavachàrya Ainàpure for his occasional help and for the pains he took in preparing for this grammar and carrying through the press the list of Verbs added at the end,

This being the first attempt of the author to bring into one volume the various departments of Sanskrt grammar as fully and as conscisely as possible the author hopes the public will take an indulgent view of the work, and pardon him for any of the inaccuracies, mistakes of typography, &c. that might have crept in notwitlistanding his best care, sufficient excuse for these to say that the whole volume was written and carried through the press in less than a year. Before concluding I have also to thank Mr. Vinayaka Naràyana Proprietor of the firm of Messrs. Gopal Nàrayan & Co., my publishers of this Grammar, for the care with which he passed the sheets through the press.

. Lastly I beg to say that I shall be very grateful for any corrections and suggestions that may be sent me by my indulgent readers and critics and will try to profit by them if the book reaches a second edition.

M. R. KALE. Bombay 30th April 1894.

It is a

It is a matter of great pleasure to me that I have bad an occasion, earlier than I anticipated, to offer to the public a second edition of my 'Higher Suuskit Grammar'. The rapid sale of the first edition, as well as its recommendation as an optional test for its Higher Examinations by the Alahabad University, show that the work has met with the generaj approval of the public inspite of its many defects. I had a mind to subject the whole work to a thorough revision and to give it a final shape as it is being used as a book of reference by some authors and editors. But as the work of revision was undertaken in the midst of the horrors of the Bubonic Plague, I could not fully carry out my object. The improvements made in this edition, however, are not a few. The first three chapters have been remodelled and Declension considerably simplified. A new chapter has been assigned to Numerals and Pronouns. Some of the more difficult rules under the chapter on Compounds have been split up into two or more easier ones and many important new articles added. In treating of the Non-conjugational tenses the two futures and the conditional have been placed before the Perfect at the suggestion of some teachers. Some slight alterations and corrections where necessary have been made in the other chapters. As I had neither the time nor the means of consulting higher works on Grammar such as the Manorama,

the Sekhara &c, I am obliged to reserve for a future edi-
tion the work of making such additions and omissions as
are necessary to give the book a permanent form. A chapter
on the ordinary figures of speech and one on Vedic Grammar
as also an index would have been useful additions, but even
these I have to reserve for a future edition, Before con-
cluding I have to thank the late Mr. N. B. Godbole B. A.
and Mr. Jekisandás G. Bhakta of Surat who made
useful suggestions. In conclusion I hope the intelligent
public will receive the work with the same favour and in-
dulgence as it did the first edition.

1st February 1898,


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