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fragt:Pri they two took a limited numer of servants with thein that there should be no disturbance, &rs; ( ) so, thus; as follows; Afrir eftitit; (5) in the capacity of, as regards पितेति स पूज्यः गुरुरिति निन्यः as a father he ought to be respected, as a teacher ought to !e censurel; (6) to state an opinion gta 57447237: this is the opinion of Âs'haratlıya. It is often used by commentators in the sense of 'according to the role' इति शक्याथै लिङ्; &c. &c.

INTERJECTIONS. § 971. The following stanza from the Bhatti Kivya illustrates the use of some of these interjections:

आः कष्टं बत ही चित्रं हूं मात वतानि धिक् ।
हा पितः कासि हे सुभ्र बह्ववं विललाप सः ॥

CHAPTER XVI,

PROSODY.* § 972. † Poetical composition in Sanskit may be in the form of a prose, or cu verse or metrical composition.

§ 973. Prosody treats of the laws of versification or metrical composition, Sausk:t verse is regulated by quantity, not by accent.

§ 974. A 94 or stanza consists of four lines each called a

• The earliest writer on Prosody is Pingaláchàrya. His work is known as “The Pingalachhandas S'àstra." It is written in Sútras and is divided into eight books. The Agni Purâņa also deals with the subject very fully. The present chapter, however, is chiefly based on the Vittaratuâkar and Chhandomanjarî.

काव्यं गयं च पयं च तट्वियैव व्यः स्थितम् । Dandin. Kar. Pr. I.

а

pâda or quarter. A páda is regulated either by the number of syllables (STETT) or by the number of syllabic instants (HTTT).

(a) A syllable is as much of a word as can be uttered distinctly by one effort of the voice i. e. a single sowel with or without one or more consonants,

(b) A mà trà (ATT) is the measure of time required to prononnee a short vowel.

975. A syllable is 'light', or T heavy' according as its vowel is short or long.

(a) The vowels 37, 3, 3, # and a are short; and the vowels str, , 57, , T, Ê sit, and sit are long. When a short vowel is followed by an Anuswâra or Visarga or by a conjunct consonant, it is converted into what is called a prosodially long vowell; as TT, STEG,

&c. § 976. The last syllable of a pâda is either heavy or light according as the exigence of the metre requires it, whatever be its natural length;f as in syfem Tag a forfra, &c. (Vier. I.); तस्याः खुरन्यासपवित्रपांजुम (Rag. II. 2.).

§ 977. In the case of metres regulated by syllables each line is divided into groups of three syllables each, called Gaņas or syllabic feet, named as 7, 7, , , 57, 5, # and The names and the Schemes of these are given in the following stanza:

मस्त्रिगुरुस्त्रिलघश्च नकारो
भादिगुरुः पुनरादिलबुर्यः ।
जो गुरुमध्यगतो रलमध्यः
सोन्तगुरुः कथितोन्तलचुस्तः ।।

*

मानुस्वारश्च दीर्घश्च विसर्गी च गुरुभवे । † Vide Vșttaratnâkara. I. 9.

वर्णः संयोगपूर्वश्च तथा पादान्त गोपि वा || Chhandomanjari.

i. e. # has all its syllables long; 7 has all its syllables short; * has its first syllable long, y has its first syllable short; # has its middle syllable long; r has its middle syllable short; Ħ has its last syllable long and a has its last syllable short.*

The symbol stands for a short or ligit syllable; the symbol – denotes a long vowel or a heavy syllable. Symbollically represented these Gaņas will stand as follows:

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त Similarly the letter as is used to denote a short syllable and of a long one the close of a line.

§ 978. In the case of metres reg ilate. I buy syllabic i isulta ea's line is divided into groups of four nitràs called the Micro Gal; one Art or instant is allotted to a short vowel and two to a long The mâtrà gaņas are five in number. These

may

be

symbollically represented thus :

one.

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$ 979. A pulya or stanza may be either a fi or a stila.

• The following verse is easier to remember than the one given above :

आदिमध्यावसानेषु यरता यान्ति लाघवम् |
भजसा गौरवं यान्ति मनौ तु गुरुलाघवम् ।।

(a) A Vịtta is a stanza the metre of which is regulated by the number and position of syllables in each pada or quarter.

(6) A Jati is a stanza the metre of which is regulated by the number of syllabic instants in each Pada or quarter.

$ 980. • A Vịtta again is of three kin Is : (1) 749 or that in which all the quarters are similar; (2) 371HPT or that in which the alternate quarters are similar; and (3) 159 or that in which the quarters are all dissimilar,

§ 981. There are 26 classes of Samaríttas or regular metres generally accepted. This classification rests on the number of sựllables in each quarter which may vary from one to twentysix. Each of these classes comprises a variety of metres all differing from one another according to the combination of the varions ganas.

8 982. Yati (fa) is the Sanskrt name for the cæsura or pause which

may

be made in reciting a quarter or verse. § 983. Only the metres in common 118e with their schemes in Gaņas will be given here; all unimportant metres, as well as Vedic and Prakrta metres will be iguored,

1

Section I.

SAMAVRTTAS.
Metres with 8 syllables to a Pàda.

(1) अनुषुभ or श्लोक. § 984. This is the commonest of all Sanskệt metres; it forms the chief metre of the great epics and many of the Puràņas.

* सममर्धसमं वृत्तं विषमं च तथा परम् ॥

अन पो यस्य चत्वारस्तुल्यलक्षणलक्षिताः।
तच्छंदःशास्त्रतत्वज्ञाः समं वृत्तं प्रचक्षते ॥

There are many

varieties of this metre; but that in coninion nise has eight syllables to the Pada the fifth being short (thought occasional variations from these rules occur in the Maliblarata and the Ramayana):Ex:- Vide 1st canto of Rag.

(2) गजगति (4. 4)
Def. नभलगा गजगतिः ।
Sch. of G. न भ ल ग

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Ex. रविमुतापरिसरे विहरतो दृशि हरेः ।

व्रजवधूगजगनिर्मुदमलं व्यतनुत ॥
(3) प्रमाणिका (4. 4)
Def. प्रमाणिका जरी लगौ।

.
Sch. of G. ज, र, ल, ग,

- 1
Ex. पुनातु भक्तिरच्युता सदा च्युतांदिपायोः ।

श्रुतिस्मृतिप्रमाणिका भवांबुराशितारिका ।
(4) माणयक (4. 4)
Del. भात्तलगा माणवकम् ।
Sch of G. भ, त, ल, ग,
~~

~~
Ex. चंचलचूडं चपलैर्वत्सकुले केलिपरम् ।

ध्याय सखे स्मेरमुखं नन्द गुतं माणवकम् ॥

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प्रथमांप्रिम मो यस्य तृतीयचरणो भवेत् । द्वितीय तुर्यवहानं तदर्धसममुच्यते ।।

यस्य पादचतु कपि लक्ष्म भित्र परस्परम् । तदाहुविरमं वृत्तं छन्दःशास्त्रविशारदाः ।।

37 8. G.

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