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of in the habit of". अस्नु timid, गृध्नु coretous, greely;

' धृष्णु bold, शिप्नु throwing, casting. मर- (कमरच )-सू-सूमर going, a kind of deer; घस्-घस्नर and

अत्-अमर voracious, gluttonous, a glutton. य-(क्यप )-is added to प्रज्, यज् and कृ and forms fem.

abstract nouns; व्रज्या asceticism, an attack; इज्या a sacrifice, &c.; it is affixed to अज with सम्, सद् and पत् with नि, मन्, विद्, सु, शी, भृ and इ in

in the sense of either the place or the instrument of the action denoted by the root; समज्या assembly; निषया a couch a market place, the hall where an assembly meets; निपत्या slippery ground; मन्या the nape of the neck विद्या, सुत्या a sprinkling with the Soma juice; शय्या n bed, भृत्या wages; इत्या a vehicle;-to चर् and मृग; परिचर्या service, &c.; मृगया hunting, इच्छा is

irregularly derived from इ + क्यप्. र-is affixed to नम्, कम्प, ति, कम्, हिंस्, and दीप; नम्र bowing

down, yielding; कन्ध shaking, tremulous; समर smiling, कम्र desirous, beautiful; हिंत्र injurious, munlerous; दीप्र shining. The word अजस्रं alv. also derived from जस् with न

( changel to अ) an l र. रु-is alled to दा, धे, सि, सद् anl शर; दा--दारुः one

who gives or eats; 11-15: one who drinks; ÀF: one who binds;

TT: one who goes or destroys; He: oro who goes or perishes. वन्--(कनिप्)-पारदृश्वन् from दृश् one who has seen the other

sile; राजयुम्वन् one who has fought with a king; राजकृत्वन,

one who is made a king; similarly सहयुध्वन् and सह कृत्वन्वर--(करप ) is affixed to the roots इ, जि, नश् and सः इत्पर go

ing, cruel; जित्वर victorious, नश्वर perishal le, fleeting; it is also alded to गम् ; गत्वर transient, goins.

IS

CHAPTER X.

SYNTAX

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§ 778. Syntax deals with the mode of arranging words in sentences. Of the three divisions of Syntax, Concord, Government and Order, the syntax of Sanskợt is mainly concerned with the first two; Syntax in English depends principally upon the last. In Sanskrt and other cognate Languages which are rich in inflection, the relation, which one word bears to another in is determined by its grammatical form, and no change occurs in the meaning of the sentences howsoever the order of words be changed. But in English and other languages, wanting in inflection, 'order' is everything. Change the order of words and there is a corresponding change in the meaning. In Sanskrt, therefore, the mere order of words is not of material importance, thorg'i a perfect arbitrariness in that respect is not allowable. Sanskrt syntax also takes further into account the meaning and use of participles, the various tenses and moods, and particles.* These will be treated of in their proper order.

* As the great bulk of Sanskệt literature is thrown in the form of verse, the laws of syntax will be found not to be always observed by the poets. In ordinary prose writings the usual order of words in a sentence is, first the subject with its adjuncts, then the object with its adjuncts, then the adverbs and other indeclinables (extensions of the predicate ) and lastly the predicate. The chief characteristics of Sanskst style are, in the words of Prof. Max Müller, the predominance of coordination, the use of the locative absolute, a fondness for long compounds and indeclinable participles supplying the place of subordinate clauses, the frequent employment of the Past Participle instead

THE ARTICLE. $ 779. There are no articles in Sanskrt corresponding to the English Definite and Indefinite articles. The words of and Ta, however, are often used in the sense of “a certain' and the pron, ne m. f. n. as equivalent to ' the '; f 477T: a certain man; ço: पान्थः a trareller; स राजा the king, &c.

NUMBER.

§ 780. As already reniarked ( See § 53 ) there are three numbers in Sanskșt: a singular number, denoting a single individual, a dual number, denoting two, and a plural number denoting more than two. Besides these general senses

( a ) the singular may be used to denote a class; FAT: 1975: the lion is the king of beasts; बुद्धिमत्तु नरः श्रेष्ठः c.

(b) the dual sometimes denotes a male and a female of the same class; fracy parents; at a male and a female sparrow.

(1) Note:-Worils like C, FR, IT, ÅT, &c. meaning “a pair, &c. which are dual in sense but singular in form ouglrt to be always used in the singular, except when several pairs are meant.

(11) Note: --Words like peat, aqri &c. should be always 1:01 in the dual in Sanskrt.

(c) the plural, like the singular, may represent a class; are:

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of the finite verb, a predilection for passive forms, and the absence of the indirect construction and of the subjunctive mood. For the latter reason the use of the tenses and moods is comparatively simple; on the other hand, the use of the cases, being much less definite than in Latin ulli Greek presents some difficulties.

Grammar for Beginners. Tel: ( or FET: 73: ) Bralimañas (i, e, the Brálimana class ) are adorable.

some

(1) The plural is not unfrequently used as a mark of respect or reverence; gía frá TTTT: so says the venerable Shankarachàrya; gia TETE: this is the opinion of the revered preceptor, &c.

(2) In the first person, great personages and writers times use the plural instead of the singular; वयमपि भवत्यौ ATT TEST: we (i.e. I ) too ask you something; fa a but

तु we (i. e. I, the writer ) hold this opinion; TT 7 TIHe we rule over speech i. e, language, (3) Words like TTT:, TET:, 37 Tari, fahari, 3719:, ATTI:, *T

are always used in the plural, though some of them are singular in sense.

( 4 ) Names of countries which are really the names of the people inhabiting them, must be used in the plural; # faT 39 he went to Videha; &c.

But in the case of compounds ending in words denoting a country such as TT, fu, &c. the sing. must be used; STEFA c.

; अस्ति मगधदेशे पाटलिपुत्र नाम नगरम् there is a town called Pataliputra in the country of Magadlia,

( 5 ) The plural of proper nouns denotes a family or race as in English; जनकानां रचूणां च यत्कृत्स्नं गोत्रमङ्गलम्.

HIT: &c.

SECTION 1.

Concord.

§ 781.

6. When

two connecteil words are of the same gender, number, person or tense, they are said to agree with oue another or to be in concord. Speaking of a man we have to say he, of a woman she, of a plurality of persons they; these are agreements or concords.” Prof. Bain.

The concords deserving notice in Sanskrt are three:-(1) Concord of the Verb with the Subject; ( 2 ) Concord of the Adjective with the Substantive; and ( 3 ) Concord of the Relative with the Antecedent.

Concord of THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT.

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§ 782. The verb must agree with its subject in number and person; greta THE ACT TTA there was a king, Nala by name; अहं गच्छामि I go; ब्राह्मणी गच्छतः tro Brahmanas go; jc.

$ 783. (a) When two or more subjects differing in number are connected by ‘and’ the verb must be plural; na: gaat ITAT च भीमश्च सह बन्धुभिः । ददुः श्राद्धं तदा पांडोः &c. Mb. times the verb agrees with the nearest subject in number; H सत्यवती देवी गान्धारी च यशस्विनी । राजदारैः परिवृता गान्धारी चापि निर्ययो ॥ Mb. अहश्च रात्रिश्च उभे च सन्ध्ये धर्मोपि जानाति नरस्य वृत्तम् ॥

(6) But when they are connected by 'or' and are all sing. the verb will be singular; and when the subjects differ in number the verb will agree with the one nearest to it; रामः गोविंदो वा व्रजत let Rima or Govinda go'; स वा इमे बालका वा आनं गृहन्न

let him or these boys take the mango fruit.

§ 784. (a) When a verb agrees with two or more subjects of different persons connected by and,' the first person has preference over the second or third, and the second over the third; त्वमहं रामश्चैतत्करिष्यामः Rama. you and I shall do this; स्वं रामथ पाठशाला गच्छतम्, &c.

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