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by means of a stick;' Hot artta #ret: 'the Brahmaņa is deceived ty reason of his folly. T¥*--in the cau. is Atm. in the sense of 'deceiving'; FTTT

a deceives Mànavaka;' but with drives away a serpent.'

to- 'to speak' is Atm. in the following senses:-- (1) TAT or 'showing brightness (proficiency) in;' t 'is adept in the S'ástra:'(2) Tre or 'conciliating or coaxing' (generally prece led by उप); भृत्यानुपवदते सांत्वयतीत्यर्थः; (3) ज्ञान or knowledge,' UTFÀ 'knows the Sastra;' (4) 767 or effort, toil'; a ·labours in the field;' (5) faafa or 'disagreement, quarrel' (generally preceded by वि in this sense) विवदन्ते; परस्पर विवरमानानां शास्त्राop of mutually conflieting Sástras;' and(6)3977T or 'coaxing, requesting;' statt 39 'praises the donor,' &c.; with it is Atm, in the sense of distinct and loud speech' ( as that of men gathered together); ET ATHTT: "the Bràhmaṇas are speaking aloud together'; but संप्रवदन्ति पक्षिणः; वरतनु संप्रवदन्ति कुकुटाः 'oh brantiful one, the cocks are crowing;' with yra it is Atn. when used intransitively; अनुवदते कठः कलापस्य the Katha Brahmana imitates (speaks on the side of) the Kalàpa Brahmaņa;' but sti अनुवदति 'reproduces what is said;' अनुवदति वीणा 'the lute imitates the notes (indistinctly);' with fat it is Atm. in the sense of disagreeing or disputing'; for:; with it is Atm, in the sense of ‘reviling, reproaching, refusing', when the fruit of the action refers to the agent; अपवरते धनकामो अन्यायं 'greedy of wealth reviles others unjustly;' so न्यायमपवदते 'refuses justice;' but अपवर

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• गृधिवञ्च्योः प्रलम्भने | Pan. I. 3. 69.

+ भासनोपसंभाषाज्ञानयत्नविमत्युपमन्त्रणेषु वदः । व्यक्त पाचां समुयारणे | अनोरकर्मकात् । विभाषा विप्रलापे | Pin. I. 3. 47-50.

28 S. G.

fa 'reproaches' (when the result does not refer to the agent); cf. HIGITT, Manu. IV. 236.; when the fruit of the action is indicated as referring to the agent the Atm. is optional; FF अपवति-ते वा (Sid. Kau. . on Pan. 1. 3. 77); 9€ with 39 in the sense of 'advising or speaking stealthily' when used transitively; शिष्यं उपवरते 'gives advise to his pupil;' परदारान् उपवदत speaks stealthily with another's wife,'

E- is both Par. and Atm. but with q is restricted to the Par.; प्रवहति.

Pare - 'to know' (2nd cl.) with his Atm. when used ntransitively in the sense of 'knowing of, being aware of,' and adds to & optionally in the 3rd per. plural; à or a 'they know well;' cf. ad Trattarit ET HET Bh. VIII. 17. 'who do not know that the inountain Maináka is the friend of Vayu?; but संवित्तः सहयुध्वानौ तच्छक्ति खरदूषणौ Bhatt. V. 37. as it is used transitively. It is also Atm. with #t in the sense of “recognising'; as åra.

विशt-with नि is Atm. निविशते; किष्किन्धान्यिविशतः Bhatt. VIII. 143. Also when अभि is prefixed to नि: अभिनिविशते सन्मानं (Sid. Kau.) 'takes to a good path;' see Bh. VIII. 80.

TC ş meaning to repro:ch or to abuse' takes the Atm. eren when the fruit of the action does not accrue to the agent; 550 शपते।

fetat -takes the Atm. in the sense of 'wishing to study'; yo ara PTH 'wishes to study archery.'

* विदिप्रच्छिस्वरतीनामुपसंख्यानम् Vartika; वेर्विभाषा Pan, VII. 1.7. tarat: Pan. I. 3. 17.

शप उपालम्भे Vartika. + शिक्षेजिज्ञासायाम् Vartika.

श्रु* to hear' with सम् is Atm. when used intransitively; संमृणुते 'hears well;' संशणुष्व कपे ( Bhat. VIII. 1. ) Listen with heed oh monkey;' Cf. हितान यः संशृणुते स किंप्रभु: Kir. I. 5. but शब्दं संशृणोति, 'he hears the sound.' This root takes the Atm, in the Desiderative except when आ or प्रति precedes it; शुश्रूषते but आ--प्रति-शुश्रूषति.

स्था -with सम, अव, प्रand वि is Atm.;संलिष्ठते, मृदो परिभवत्रासान draga (M11, 1, 36.) 'fearing an outrage does not abide by one who. is mild;' sce Mrch. 1. 36. (In the sense of 'standing still,

' &c. it is used in the Par. क्षणं न संविष्ठति जीवलोकः क्षयोदयाभ्य, परिवर्तमानः । Hariv.); क्षपमप्यवतिष्ठते श्वसन् (जन्तुः ) if a being reInains breathing though only for a moment;' अनीत्वा पता धूलिमु. दकं नावतिष्ठते । Si. II. 34 प्रतिष्ठते; See Ragh. IV. 6.; Kum. III. 22. वितिष्ठते; पदैर्भुवं व्याप्य वितिष्ठनानं Sis. IV. 4.; with आ it is Atm. in the sense of 'laying down a proposition, asserting solemnly;' शब्द नित्यं आतिष्ठते affirms that sound is eternal; जलं विर्ष वा तव कारणास्थास्ये (Mah. Bha.) for thy sake I will drink water or poison;' in the sense of 'observing' it takes the Par. when used transitively; विधिनातिष्ठति 'observes the row.

; स्था is Atm. by itself in the sense of 'disclosing one's intention or abiding by' गोपी कृष्णाय तिष्ठते, आशयं प्रकाशयति इत्यर्थः। सं. शय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Kir. III. 14. 'who when in doubt takes recourse to Karụa and others (as the deciders of the matter in

• अतिश्रुशिभ्यधति वक्तव्यम् । Vartika,

+ समवप्रविभ्यः स्थः। Pan. I. 3. 32 आङः प्रतिज्ञायामुपसंख्यानम् Vartika, प्रकाशनस्थयाख्ययोश्च | उदोनूर्वकर्मणि | Pan. I. 3. 23. 24. उपा-मंत्रकरणे । Pan. I. 3. 25. ईहायामेव | Vārtika. उपादेवपूजासङ्गतिकरणमित्रकरणपविधिति वाच्यम् । वा लिप्तायाम् Vartikas. अमिकाच | Pan. I. 3. 26.

hand).' With 3 it is Atm. except in the sense of “getting ap or getting by right;' TITETASR rearnestly thinks of (aspires to) absolution;' (See Kir. XI, 13. and Sis, XIV, 17 ); but at. दुत्तिष्ठति; ग्रामाच्छतमुत्तिष्ठति 'a frundred is yielded to him by : village (as tax, &c.).' with jq it is Atm, in the senses of:(1) 'worshipping with the recital of holy texts;' HÀ FOR A ga 'worships the Agnidhra fire with the recital of Vedic texts," ये सूर्यमुपतिष्ठन्त मन्त्रैः Bh. VIII. 13.; but भर्तारमुपतिष्ठति यौवनेन (or qfar TT Aro Vop.), where the meaning is to approach for intercourse; to serve; See Bhatt. V. 68.; (2) 'waiting upon worshipping (a divise being)' Seara: (the Atm. rise of the root in 'स्तुत्यं स्तुतिभिरानिरुपतस्थे सरस्वती' Rag. IV. 6. is to be explained, thinks Bhattoji Dikshita, by the fact that the king is supposed to be a divine being); (+) *uniting or joining; गङ्गा यमुनामुपतिष्ठतेः (1) forming friendship with' रथिकानुपनिÀ, für Tat zur Sid. Kan.); and “to lead to" qrur: GET 34Fara 'this way leads to Srughna.' When a desire to get something is implied स्या with उप takes either Pala; भिक्षुकः प्रभुमुपतिष्ठतिä TT 'a beggar waits on a lori, (with the desire of getting something) When it is trsel intransitively it takes the Acm.; FF farà 'comes at the dinier time."

स्मृ- -is Atm, in the Desiderativo; m. -is Par. in the causal artefa.

F-with and siis Atm.; #fara 'roars so as to terriiy' a raffigte Blratt, IX. 28. ETTÄ 'utters a loud sound.'

-with or when used intransitively or when it has a limb

:

* 313T 967: | Pán. 1. 9. 28.

of the body of the agent for its object is Atm.; tra kills or dashes down; स्वशिर आहवे 'strikes his own head;' but TFT शिर आहन्ति (Sid, Kan.)

-with his Atm, in the senses of following the habits of, acquiring the natural quality of'; पैटकमवा अनुहरन् 'horses al

'

' ways follow the gait of their progenitors; so मातरं गावः अनुहरन्ते; in the senses of ‘acquiring a new quality by imitation it takes the Par. पितरमनुहरति 'imitates his father.'

हेt-preceded by उप, नि, वि, and सम् and used intransitively is Atm. उप-नि-वि-सं-हयते; with भा it is Atm. in the sense of 'challenging'; कृष्णश्चाणूरमाह्वयते 'Krshna challenges Chānura to tattle;' आहत चेदिसण्मुरारि Sis. XX. 1.; but

पुत्रमाह्वयति. The following Karikas, extracted from the Akhyâtachandrika, are subjoined here, with some alterations here and there, as a help to the student in remembering much of what is given in the preBent chapter.

॥ आत्मनेपदपरस्मैपदविवेकवर्गः ॥
भावे कर्मणि सर्वस्माद्धातोः स्यादालनेपदम् ॥
डिदभ्यस्तथानुदात्तेभ्यो भूयते प्यायवे तु दिक् ॥१॥
क्रियाव्यविहती वदतिस्ते व्यतिषिञ्चते ।।
शब्झर्थहस्प्रकाराहगतिहिंसार्थकान वत् ॥ २॥
व्यतिभ्यां जल्पति हसत्यवं हन्तीत्यमूर्दिशः ।।
नात्र संप्रवदन्ते संप्रहरन्ते निषेधवम् ॥३॥
द्विरुक्तान्यवरेवरोपनालनेपदम् ।
अन्योन्यस्य व्यतिलुनन्त्येषा दिड निपराहिः॥४॥

• हरतेगंतिताच्छील्ये vartika
t स्पर्धा यामाङः Pan. I. 3. 31.

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