Imatges de pàgina
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(a) Visarga, not belonging to an indeclinable is changed to v when preceded by », and to when preceded by < or 7, short or long and followed by the terminations पाश, कल्प, क, and काम्य'; 6. g. पयस्पाशम् Bad milk; यशस्कल्पम् little short of fame; यशस्कन्ः with fame; TUArafa: he desires fame; but TEFTA; almost dawn (where प्रातः is an indec.) सपिप्पाशम् bad ghee. सर्पिष्कल्पन, सर्पिकर, सर्पिष्काम्यति. If the Visarga, however, is a substitute for a final र् it is not changed to म् before काम्या; गोः काम्बति desires speech.

(b) 5 The Visarga of नमः and पुरः when prefixed as indeclinables to verbs beginning with more and qoris optionally changed to g in the case of the former and necessarily in that of the latter; ..g. नमस्करोति or नमःकरोति, पुरस्करोति puts in the front; but पुरः प्रवेष्टव्याः towns fit to be entered (as पुर् is a noun).;

(c) Visarga, preceded by or and not belonging to a termination, is changed to q except in the case of yz: often, if followed by a hard consonant of the guttural or the labial class : निः+प्रत्यूरं =निम्प्रत्यहम् without obstacle. आविष्कृतम् disclosed; दुष्कृतम् a bad action; but मुहुः कृतः भभिः करोति, as the visarga is substituted for स् a term; so मातुःकृपा and not मातु कृपा. भ्रातुष्पुवः is an exception.

(a) | तिरम् optionally retains its म when followed by क्, ख्, प् or फ; तिरःकरोति or तिरस्करोति hides or scorns. द्विः, त्रिः and चतुः, all of them adverbs showing frequency, chang.

मोऽपदादौ | Pin. VIII. 3. 38. पाशकल्पककाम्येषिति वाच्यम् । अनन्यय. स्त्रोत वाच्यम् | Vartikas. इण : षः | Pan. VIII. 3. 39.

1 काम्ये रोरेवति वाच्यम् | Vart.
, नमस्परसोर्गत्योः | Pan. VIII. 3. 40.
+ इदुपधस्य चाप्रत्ययस्य VIII. 3. 41,
| तिरसोऽन्यतरस्याम् | Pan. VIII. 3. 42.

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their Visarga to y optionally under the same circumstances; कति or द्विःकरोति does twice: but चतुष्कपालं having four parts (where 77: is not an adverb).

(c) † The ending or 3: of a word changes its visarga to optionally under the same circumstances when the presence of the following word is necessary for the completion of the sense; सर्पिष्करोति or सर्पिःकरोति turns into ghee; धनुष्करोति or धनु:करोणि makes a bow; but fasa at: ha 4, as there is no connection here between the word are: and ita;

And necessarily when at the end of the first member of a compound; as सर्पिष्कुण्डिका a pot for clariied butter.; but परमसपि कुfoscht a big ghee-pot (as the word are: is an uttara pada.)

(1) Visarga coming after the up of a word other than an indeclinable and forming the first member of a compound is changed to # when followed by a derivative of the roots कृ, कम्, and by कंस, कुंभ, पाश, कुशा and का e.g. अयस्कारः an iron-smith; अयस्कामः one who desires iron; अयस्कंसम् an iron pot; अयस्पात्रम्; अयस्कुशा a bridle; अयस्की a kind of iron pot; but गीकारः Brhaspati; स्वःकाम, one desiring heaven

(where स्वर् is an inde.); यशः करोति (as there is no comp.); and TATT: producing great fame (as the word Tra is not the first member of the comp.)

(9) # The words stu: and for change their visarga to Ħ when followed by qe under the same circumstances as those mentioned above; अधस्परम् , शिरस्पदम; but अधःपदं when there is no comp.; परमशिरःपदम् ( As शिरः is the latter member उत्तरपद).

farayarita Fap 1 Pán, VIII. 3. 43. + इरुसोः सामर्थ्य | नित्यसमासेऽजुनरपदस्थस्या | Pan. VIII. 3. 44-45. $ अत: कृकमिकंसकम्भपात्रक शाकणीदनव्ययस्य | Pan. VIII. 3. 46.

14. fcat & 1 Pán. VIII. 3. 47.

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46. Visarga (substituted for and not D) preceded by short Hand followed by short st or a soft consonant is changed to 3; faTT: +3725:=fT+3+37.23:=FETTI +37€4:=falties: S'ira is a lorable; (see $ 21); T:+T-4:=1 4: Gol should be salutel; but तिष्ठतु पय अ३ निदत्त (where the अ after पयः is pluts); 717:+377=TAT (for here the visarga is substituted for y); se qaray &c.

47. Visarga preceded by is dropped necessarily when followed by a soft consonant, and optionally when followed by a vowel; it is also optionally dropped when preceded by sy and followed by a vowel except 37; when it is not dropped it is changed to य् in both these cases; देवाः+नम्याः =देवा नम्याः; देवाः+इह = देवा इह or देवायिह ।

$ 48, (a) Visarga, preceded by any vowel except st or 57 and followed hy a vowel or a soft consonant, is changed to rift:

+जयति हरिर्जयति Hari conquers; so भानुरुदेति the sun rises; गौरागच्छति a cow or bull comes.

Exception:--The Visarga of the particles भोः भगोः and अचोः shers $ 47; e.g. भोः+अच्युत=भो अच्युत or भोयच्युत oh Achyuta; TTI TAH Bhago ! a bow to thee; TT II oh you, go. (6) The 7 of 85, not followed by a declensional termination,

न् अहन् is always changed to t; but if followed by tra * and other words such as PTC, &c. the change is optional; and if by y, and Te, visarga is substituted for it; STE:, STETE: day by day: STE:fa: or starfa: the lord of the day, the sun; Trafa: or otroga: Brhaspati; धूर्पतिः or धूष्पतिः a leader; but अहोभ्याम् Inst. dunl;

* अहरादीनां पत्यादिषु वा रेफः | Vart.

अहोरूपम् the form of the day, गतमहोरात्रिरेषा; अहोरात्र: day and uight; अहोरथन्तरम् a portion of Simon to be chanted by day.

(.) T or follower by for respectively is dropped, and the preceiling अ, इ or उ if short is inale long; पुनर + रमते=पुनारमते sports again; हरिः+रम्यः हरिर् +रम्यः-हरी रम्यः Hari is gracefuls but वृद् + ढः (from वृह् +त)-वृढः p. p. of वृह

to grow. $ 49.1 (a) The of the nom. sing. of तद् and एतत् mas. is dropped before a consonant when they do not end in ħ or are not used in a negative Tatpurusha; e. g. स शंभुः, एष विष्णुः; but एषको रुद्रः this Rudra. असश्शिवः that is not Siva (a neg. Tat.); एषोत्र.

(1) Sometimes in poetry the सू of सः and एषः is considered as not existing when followed by a vowel other than 37, so that the two vowels may combine in order to meet the exigencies of tlus

metre; c. . सेमामविड्डि प्रभृतिं य ईशिषे, &c. Rg. II. 24. 1.

सैष दाशरथी रानः सैष राजा युधिष्ठिरः
सैष को महात्यागी सैष भीमो महाबलः ।।

CHAPTER III.

SUBANTA OR DECLENSION.

$ 50. In the present chapter Declension or the inflection of nouns, substantive and adjective, will be cousidered.

§ 51. The crude form of a noun (any declinable word) not yet inflected is technically called a Pratipadika (प्रातिपदिक).

* रोरि | ढलोपे पूर्वस्य दीर्घ ऽगः | Pin. VIII. 3. 14, VI. 3. 111.

+ एतत्तदोः सुलोपो कोरनसमासे हलि | + सोचि लेप चेन्वादपुरणम् | Pin, VI. 1. 182, 184

$ 52. A noun has three genders: a masculine gender (mas.),

( a feminine gender (fem.), and a neuter gender (neu.). The question about the determination of the gender of nouns will be considered in a separate chapter.

§ 53. There are three numbers:- Singular (sing.), dual (du.), and plural (pl.). The singular number denotes one, the dual two, and the plural three or more.

§ 54. There are eight cases in each number: Nominative (Nom, or N.), Vocative (Voc. or V.), Accusative (Acc. or A.), Instrumental (Ins. or I.), Dative (Dat, or D.), Ablative (Ab, or A.), Genetive (Gen. or G.), and Locative (Loc. or L.). These express nearly all relations between words in a sentence.

N. B. These genders, numbers and cases will, for the sake of convenience, be denoted by their abbreviations enclosed into brackets after each.

§ 55. Sup (@qt) is the technical term for a case termination in Sanskrt. Declension consists in adding the case terminations to the crude form or base.

द्वपैकयोद्विवचनैकवचने । बहुषु बहु वचनम् | Pān. I. 4. 22. 21. † The general terminations as given by Pâņini are—FIFAट्छष्टाभ्याम्भिस्भ्याम्भ्यस्ङतिभ्याम्भ्यस्ङसोसाम्ड्योस्तुप | IV. 1. 2.i. e. Nom. 1 औ जस; Acc. अम् ओट् शस्; Ins. टा भ्याम् भिस्; Dat. डे भ्याम् भ्यस; Ab. डसि भ्याम् भ्यस्; Gen. ढस् ओस् आम्; Loc. डि ओस् सुप्. Some of these terminations as is common with Pâộini's system of nomenclature hrave certain It8 (servile letters) added or prefixed to them; e. 9. s in , in T &o. It will be easily seen that the term 59 is obtained by taking the first letter and the last It in the sutra,

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