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CHAPTER XII.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

§ 377. There are in Sanskrt
(a) Two kinds of verbs, Primitive and Derivative.

(6) Six Tenses (कालाः) and four Moods (अर्थाः) which are 83 follows:

TENSES. TECHNICAL NAME. MOODs. TECHNICAL NAME. वर्तमानः or Present ल* आज्ञा or Imperative लोट. लुङ्. विधि or Potential

विधिलिङ्. अनद्यतनभूतः or Imperfect लङ्. आशी: or Benedictive आशीलिङ. परोक्षभूतः or Perfect लिट. संकेत or Conditional

लङ्. भविष्यन् or 1st Future

लद. अनद्यतनभविष्यन् or 2nd Future

लट्.

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भूतः or Aorist

This technical names are given in the following Káriki.

लट् वर्तमाने लेट वेदे भूते लुङ्लड्लिटस्तथा ।

विध्याशियस्तु लिंङ्लोटौ लुट् लट् लङ् च भविष्यति ।। This terminology of Panini, it will be seen, is artificial. Other grammarians use different names. The ten Lakaras of Panini are according to their nomenclature as follows.-भवंती (वृनी), अद्यतनी ह्यस्तनी, परोक्षा, श्वस्तनी, भविपन्ती, पञ्चमी, सती; क्रियातिपत्ति and आशी:'Apte's Guide.

or the Saljunctive is used only in the Veda and is therefore termed 'The Vedic Subjunctive.'

Note:—The ten tenses and moods are technically called the ten Lakaras in Sanskșt grammars.

(c) Three Voices (ir), the Active Voice (analogo) as रामः सत्यं भाषते, the Passive Voice (कर्मणिप्र.), as हरिणा फलं भक्ष्यते, and the Impersonal Construction (भावेप्र०), रामेण गम्यते.

(d) Two sets of personal terminations, the one called Parasmaipada,' the other ·Atmanopada.' Some roots take exclusively the Par, terminations and some the Atm. ones; while there are others which take either. Several roots again, though Parasmaipadi, take the Atmanopada and vice versa, when precoded by certain propositions or in particular senses. These will be considered in a soparate chapter. $ 378.

Primitira verbs or roots are those which originally exist in the language, while derivative verbs are those which may be derived from a parent stock-a root or a noun,

§ 379. Every verb, in Sanskệt, whether primitive or deriva(tive may be conjugated in the ten tenses and moods given above.

(0) Transitive verbs are conjugated in the active and possive roices and intransitive verbs in the active and the impersonal form.

§ 380. In each tense and mood there are three numbers, singular, dual and plural, with three persons in each.

§ 381. In four of the tenses and moods given above, vis, the Present, the Imperfect, the Imperative and the Potential, the verbs undergo peculiar modifications (FAR) and these are therefore

called Conjngational (

AOA)* or Special tenses and moods; and the remaining Non-Conjugational (TTCa ) or general. In the former the characteristic marks and terminations of each are mostly added to a special base formed from the root in various ways, while in the latter they are combined with the root itself

(a) The base (3755) of a root is that form which it assumes before the personal terminations.

$382. When a root is capable of taking either pada, the Par. asmaipada (lit, word for another) should be used when the fruit or result of the action of the verb accrues to any other person or thing than the agent, and the Atmanepada (lit. word for self) when it refers to the agent. Thus TT: yafa will mean • Devadatta sacrifices for another (his Yajamána);' while : Ta will mean Deradatta sgorifices for himself.'

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• Strictly the term Sàrvadhàtuka (belonging to the full form of the verbal base) is given by Pàņini to the porsonal terninations of all the tenses and moods, except those of the Perfect and the Bonedietive, and to the affixes distinguished by an indicatory s' (fra), i. e. the various conjugational signs of the 9 classes, (except that of the eighth) and the terminations of the Present Participle Par. and Atm. All other verbal affixes i. e, the conjugational signs of the 8th and 10th classes, the affixes added to form the causal base and a few denominatives, the affixos F7, OT, H and a added to the bases of the two futures, the desiderative and the Passive, all the affixes of the Aorist and those forming the Past Participle (Act, and Pass.), the infinitive and the verbal indeclinables, and some others are called Áruhadhâtuka,

SECTION 1.

ACTIVE VOICE.

I. CONJUGATIONAL

or

SPECIAL TENSES AND MOODS.

Present, Imperfect, Imperative and Potential. $ 383. With reference to the various modifications which the root undergoes in the Special tenses and moods the verbs are divided into ten conjugational classes by Sanskặt grammarians, each class being denominated after the root which begins it; riz. (1) भ्वादि, (2) अरादि, (B) जुहोत्यादि, (4) विवादि, (5) स्वादि, (6) तु. दादि, (7) रुधादि, (8) तनादि. (9) क्यादि, and (10) चुरादि.

$ 384. The roots contained in the first nine classes and a few of the tenth are primitive roots, while almost all roots of the tentlı class, the Causals, Desiderative, Frequentatives, Denominatives and the roots गुप, धूप, विच्छ, पण, पन्, कत्, and कम् are comprised wder the head of Derivative roots.

$ 385. These ten classes may again be conveniently divided into two groups, the first comprising the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th classes, and the second the remaining. In the first the base ends in

and remains unchanged throughout; while in the second it does not end in and is changeable.

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I GROUP 1.
Roots with UNCHANGEABLE Bases.

( 1st, 4th, 6th, and 10th, classes ). § 386. Terminations:

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Tra is optionally added in the 2nd and 3rd person singulrs when the Imperative has a benedictive sense,

17 S. G.

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