Imatges de pÓgina
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विष, वर्ष, चमस 'a sacrificial ressel of a particular shape,' अंस, रस, निर्यास exudation of trees, उपवास, कार्पास 'any thing made of cot. ton,' वास, मास, कास, कंस 'a drinking cup,' मांस, द्रोण, n. a wooden ressel or cup, आढक, बाण, काण्ड, वस्त्र, अरण्य, गाण्डीव 'the bow of Arjuna,' शील m a large serpent, मूल, मङ्गल, साल, कमल m. the Kirasa bird, name of Brahma, तल, मुसल, कुण्डल, पलल, m. a demon, n. flesh,' मृणाल, बाल, निगाल 'a lhorse's neck,' पलाल 'forage, festa a cat, the eye-ball, fern a piece of waste or uncultivated land, शूल, पद्म, उत्पल m. a kind of plant, शत, अयुत, प्रयुत, पत्र the blade of a sword, a knife, पात्र, पवित्र, सूत्र and छत्र m. a mushroom ; n. . parasol, an umbrella.

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$ 360. स्थूण-णा 'the post or pillar of a house,' अर्चिस् light, and लक्ष-क्षा one hundred thousand (according to some m. also).




§ 361. That is an Aryaya whose forın remaining the same in all the genders, numbers and cases, undergoes no change.. The Avyayas may be divided into simple and compound. The latter

• सदृशं त्रिषु लिनेषु सर्वासु च विभाक्तिषु ।

वचनेषु च सर्वेषु यत्र यति तदव्यम् ।।
स्वरादिनिपातमव्ययम् | Pin. I. 1. 37.

are treated of in the chapter on compounds (Avyayibhàras and a jer Bahuvrihis and Tatpurushas).

{ 362. The indeclinables comprise (I.) Propositions, (11.) Adverbs, (III.) Particles, (IV.) Conjunctions, and (V.) Interjections.

§ 363. Besides these there are in Sankrit a few nouns having one inflection only which are treated as indeclinables (nipàtas); e.g. अन्यत another reason, अस्तम् setting' अस्ति that exists, ओम् the well-known sacred syllable om, 7 satisfaction, food, I coaxing

चाटु नमस a bow, नास्ति non-existence, भूर the earth, भुवर sky, वदि the dark fortnight, 74 bappiness, gre or are the bright fortnight, संवत् a year, स्वाहा food offered to gods, स्वधा food offered to the manes, pay heaven, paffa happiness &c.


§ 364. A preposition, styled Upasarga or Gati,' in Sanskrt, is an indeclinable word, having an independent meaning and prefixed to verbs and also to their derivatives. These prepositions modify, intensify and sometimes totally alter the senses of roots; * e. g. de 'to strike,' SITE 'to eat, to perform as a sacrifice,' Fia 'to contract,' FRE'to sport,' fre' to avoid,' &c.' Sometimes they are

' prefixed without


alteration in the sense.

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* धात्वर्थ बाधते कश्चित्कश्चित्तमनुवर्तते ।

तमेव विशिनध्यन्य उपसर्गगतिविधा ।। Cf. also Sid. Kau. उपसगेंग धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते ।

प्रहाराहारसंहारविहारपरिहारवत् ।। Some think that prepositions have no meaning of their own, but they simply bring to light when prefixed to roots their hidden senses. (Cf. Sis. X. 15).

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§ 365. The following are the prepositions ( upasargas ) commonly prefixed to roots:STA" beyond, over'; 3fa: overstepping' or 'going beyond,'

STE a gift'; &c. STF-'orer, above,' je.; STTTTA: going up, acquisition, TETETT:

high office or power,' STTTTT: censure,' &c. — after, behind, along,' &c.; 577 T 'following,' serat:

'imitation,' : favour,' &c. अप -- away from, away,' अपनयनं the act of taking away,' अपह ' to plunder, seize,' fc. 379 rt: harm, wrong,' &c.

, y (sometimes fu— near to,' over,' taking to,' &c.; STTTTH 'to

be resolved into or reduced to*,' अपिधानं or पिधान

covering,' sy destruction,' &c. This pre, is more commonly used as an independent adverb having a cumulative force in classical Sanskỉt. STT" towards, near to,' &c.; 37TTE 'to go towads,' TTT:

'noble descent or family', TATATAT: 'self-respect', fty 'to

defeat,' &c. 977 (sometimes 7; sec stít and ft. note)—-'away, off, down', &c.

अव or-वगाह 'to plunge into', अवतारः 'descent, अवगीत

*reproached', TTHT 'to disrespect,' &c. - up to, towards, all round, a little, &c.; HET 'to cover

all round,' stric: 'form or shape (within due bounds),' TIT: 'that which shines all round' i, e, the 'ether'; 5777 IY 'to shake a little', &c.

Cf. FrTTa aft277 FTO, &c, Slàrira Bhashya. According to the grammarian Bhậguri the prepositions aff and 317 may optionally lose their 37 (if: HTTTTTTTTTTTT I Sid. Kau.).

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37-5-upon', &c.; JAR 'to go up', ITT: 'industry,' Jen: 'po ur

ing out, hence a gift, a general rule,' &c. IT-near to, towards, by the side of', &c.; JTer 'to go near to,

उसकृति f. 'an obligation, उपरति 'death,' उसस्थानं praise

worship,' fra f. compassion,' &c. JA-T-bad, hard to be done,' &c.; GerarT: bad conduct,' 557

‘hard to be done,' T: "Hifti,ult to be borne,' &c. f7-'in, into, great, opposed to,' gc.; fa 'to insult,' fainaa

house,' e 'a heap, a great collection,' Fifta drunk

in,' fata 'command,' &c. 17-f-ront of, away from, withont,' &c. fa: 'to issue out,' fatista:

'a passage out,' fata 'ont of i. e. free from blame,' f:

is 'without doubt', &c. 97-'away, back, opposed to,' &c. TTK 'to reject, to despise', TT *

'to act bravely,' Terta 'gone away,' T turned back'

TOTO 'what is opposed to victory, defeat', &c. oft-'all round, about', &c.; TFTET 'to place all round' i.e. to pat

on or wear', artre: “a w all,' &c. that surrounds, TOTA: ‘ripening, maturity,' TITITTAT 'counting all round i. e, a

complete enumeration', &c. 917-'towards, back, in return, in opposition to,' &c.; draita

'to go towards,' ATTTT 'a speech in return, an answer, प्रति (ती) कारः, an act in opposition to' i. e. a

remedy,' &c. Fe-'apart, separate from, reverse to,' &c.; Fon'to move apart,

FTTH to be separated,' faai opp. of Hi 'to sell,' to

buy,' &c.; sometimes this has an intensive force. #4-'together with, excellent, full, '_46, į **T4, to be united,

16 S. G.

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Hart: 'perfection,' TE 'refinement,' HET 'destruc

tion,'contraction,' &c. -'well', 'thoronghly, ' &c.; (in this sense it is opposed to p ),

denar done well', gufaa thoroughly trained, well governed', &c. It is also used in the sense of 'very, ex

cessively'; HET very great. § 366. Two or more of these prepositions may also be conbinod and prefixed; e. g. Brat 'to enter into with resolution,' HEART4 éto come in close contact with,' &c. § 367When used in a compound the verb may

be omitted after the prepositions अति, अधि, अनु, अप, भनि, उन, and प्रति as faire HT FATA: &o. Vide § 231.

$368. There are several other words, also styled Gati by Sanskệt grammarians, used prepositionally. These are prefixed to certain roots only. We give the more important of them below.

(a) seo 'towards' is prefixed to me and to roots implying motion; अच्छगम्य-गत्य 'going near', अच्छपतत् to fly towards,' भच्छो. a 'having spoken to.'

(6) (1) Tarot giving strength to the weak,' spas in the sense of decorating,, , odt, f all implying 'assent, acceptance or promise,' ut and similar imitative sounds, se and era in

खात् the sense of deshonouring or honouring;' que denoting 'fastening', &c. are prefixed to कृ; अन्वाकरणम्, करीकरणम्, असत्कारः, सत्कृत्य, खात्कृत्य, प्राध्वकरणम, &c.

(2) नमः, प्रादुः, मिथ्या, वशे, साक्षात् and some other words may be optionally prefixed to कृ or remain separate; नमस्कारः, वशे or

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