Imatges de pÓgina
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lip as red as the bimlhe fruit': दी गड्ढे यस्याः सा दीर्घजवा-सी 'ond having long legs,' hence in she-camel'; स्वङ्गा-ङ्गा (शोभनं अङ्ग यस्याः सा) fair-bodied; सुपुच्छा-च्छी; &o,

(1) but if पुच्छ be preceiled by कबर, मणि, and विष; or if पुच्छ Andrey be used in a Bah. involving comparison, the fem. is formed in & only; Haryasf, ‘one having a variegated plumage' i, e. 'a peahen'; उलूकपक्षी शाला 'a hall haring its sides like the wings of an owl'; उलूकपुच्छी सेना 'an army with its rear arrayed in the shape of the tail of an owl.'

$ 330. • A Bah. ending in नख anl मुख and used as a proper name forms its fem. in आः शूर्पणखा, गोरमुखा; but ताम्रमुखो 'a girl having a ruddy face.'

$ 331. † Names of the limbs of the body, preceded by words denoting a cardinal point in a compound, form their fem. in ई;

उरबुखी, &c.

$ 332. + A Balh. ending in पाद् (bstitnterl for पाद) optionally forms its fem, in s before which it is changel to 48; 1971 इव पारी यस्याः सा व्याघ्रपाद-पदी, द्विपाद-पदा; anl in आ when पाद means a foot of a Vedic verse'; द्विपदी ऋक्, एकपदा &c.

(a) But if पार the preceded by one of the wor!s कुम्न, शूल, हण हंस, काक, कृष्ण, सुकर, &c. the fem. is ne::essarily formul in ई, पाद् , changing into पद as before: कुम्भषी 'a woman whose feet are as big as a pitcher'.

(6) In other cases the fem, of prá ipadikas ending in aris formed by adding आ; हस्तिपादा, अजपादा, &c.

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नखमुखात्संज्ञायाम | Pin. IV. 1. 58, + दिक्पूर्वपदान्ङी | Pin. IV. 1. 60. + पादोन्यतरस्याम् | टाचि | Pin. IV. 1. 8.9.


$333, * A Drigu ending in अ forms the fem. in ई; त्रिलोकी; but if the ending word be one of those incluitel in the Ajidi group (see foot-note on p. 194) its fem, is formed in 377; as falar; ज्यनीका consisting of three battalions सेना, &c.

(a) A Dwigu ending in crest (a partioular measure) and qualifying a word denoting a field' has its fem. formed by the addition of 37r, but when a Taddhita affix has been first added to it and then dropped; as द्वे काण्ड़े प्रमाणं अस्याः असौ द्विकाण्ड + मात्रा=द्विकाण्डा क्षेत्रभक्तिः a piece of land 30 hands in extent; bnt द्विकाण्डी रज्जुः 'a rope 30 hands in length'; also when the ending word is one that does not denote a measure, except the words विस्त, 'a tola', आचित 'the load of a cart', and कंबल्या (a weight equal te) Bf tolas); पञ्चभिः अश्वैः क्रांता पश्चाश्चा, द्वौ बिस्तौ पचतीति विविस्ता स्थाली; so याचिता, द्विकंबल्या.

(6) † When the word 959 expressive of measurement ends it Dwigu and the Taddhita affix is addled and droppel as before: its fem. is formed both in आ and ई दो पुरुषौ प्रमाणं अस्याः द्विपुरुषाषी परिखा 'a ditch two purushas (13 feet) in depth'.

$ 335. Participles of Parasm. roots take ई in the fem. and sh do adjectives ending in a consonant; पचन्ती; याती-न्ती, शासती. क्षती. वीव्यन्ती, महती, &c.

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• दिगोः। भपरिमागबिस्ताचितकम्बल्येभ्यो न तद्धित लकि | Pin. I. 1. 21, 22.

+काण्डान्तान्क्षेपे । Pan. IV. 1. 23.
* पुरुषात्प्रमाणेन्यतरस्याम् । Pin. IV. 1. 24.




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§ 336. The terminations used to form derivative bases, in Sanskit, are distinguished into two classes: (1) krt (17) or Primary Affixes and (2) Taldhita (aign) or Secondary affixes. Kệt are those affixes that are added to verbs, and the Nominal lases formed by their means are called PRIMARY NOMINAL Bases; while Tadduta affixes are those that are added to substantives, primary or derived from roots, and the bases formed with them are called SECONDARY Nominab Bases (Vide § 178).

$ 337. In this chapter we will treat of the more general secondary nominal bases formed by means of the Taddhita affixes, reserving for a future chapter the formation of the primary nominal bases derired by means of the Kșt affixes from roots.

The Taddhita affixes are added in various senses. They occasion various changes in the words to which they are added. The following general observations should be paid attention to.

(a) As a general rule the first vowel of a word takes its Vțddhi substitute before the terminations अ, य, इक, ईन, एय, त्य, &c; as अश्वपति+अ=आश्वपति+अB

(6) Before terminations beginning with a vowel or 2 (1) the final 57, 3TT, and $ are rejected; (2) 7 and 5 take their Guna substitute; (3) it and it obey the ordinary rules of sandhi; आश्वपति+अ=आश्वपत 'belonging to Asrapati', &c. m. n.; मनु+ अमानवः 'a descendant of Manu'; गो+य गव्यं 'belonging to a cow', so arez fr. Ft, &c.

(c) In the case of derivatives from compound words some

§ 338.

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times the initial vowel of the second word takes its Vğddhi substitute, and sometimes the Vrddhi is double; पूर्ववार्षिक 'belonging to the last year'; similarly सुपांचालकः &c.; सौहार्द ir. सुहन, सौभाग्य from सुभग, &c. When these terminations are added to a Dw. comp. both the words of which are the names of deities, Vțddhi is substituted for the initial vowel of both; आमिमारुतं कर्म 'a sacrifice offered to Agni and the Marut deities,' &c.

(d) If the initial vowel of a word be preceded by the į and of a preposition the orą is first changed to or before Vrddhi substitute can take place; as व्याकरण+अ=वियाकरण+भ =वैयाकरणः; स्वश्व+अ=सुवश्व+असौवश्वः; similarly सौवस्तिक from स्वस्ति; सौवर ir. स्वर, &c. (८) Before consonantal Tad. affixes, a final is generally reject

न् ed; the final Z with the preceding vowel is sometimes dropped before vowel terminations and such as begin with य; युवन्-युवत्वं, राजन् राजक, &c.; आत्मन्-आत्म्य-आत्मीय. There are various exceptions to this latter part of the rule; e. g. राजन्य fr.

N. B.-Other changes the student will easily note from the

राजन्, &c.

instances given.

339. The following is a list of such of the Taddhita affixes as are commonly to be met with,



अ-is a lded in the sense of:-(1) the son of'; as उपगोः अपत्यं

पुमान् औपगवः ‘the son of Upagu ;' so वासुदेवः from वसुदेव; पर्वतस्य अपत्यं स्त्री पार्वती 'the daughter of the

mountain,' &c. (2) the descendant of'; as उत्सस्य 14 S. G.





गीत्रापत्यं पुमान् औत्सः 'a descendant of Utsa;' उत्सस्य
गोत्रापत्यं स्त्री औत्सी
TTT6 at siteet a female descendant of Utsa,
(Vide $ 310. 312.); (8) 'dyed with;' हरिद्रया रक्तं
हारिद्रं वसनं 'a garment dyed with turmeric'; (4) made
of ;' 'देवदारोविकारः देवदारवः 'made of the fir tree:' (5)
'belonging to,' &c.; देवस्य अयं देवः ‘belonging to a god;
शर्कराया इदं शार्करं 'of sand; 'ऊर्णाया इदं औणे वस्त्रं 'a woolen
garment,' #H:; belonging to the sultry season,' day:
nocturnal,' सांवत्सरः, 'yearly,' &c.; when added to हेमन्त
the final त is dropped; हैमनः 'autumnal,' (Vide Sis.
VI. 55; Ki. XVII, 12.). हैमन्तः means 'agresable in
the autumnal season ;' (6) •ord of'; पृथिव्याः ईश्वरः
पार्थिवः 'the lord of the earth ;' पञ्चालानां स्वामी पावाल:
'the king of the Panchalas'; ऐक्ष्वाकः* the king of the
Ikshvaku country; ' (7) a collection of ;' काकानां समूहः
काक; बकानां समूहः बाकं 'a flock of cranes;' similarly मायूरं
from मयूर 'a peacock,' कापोतं fr. कपोत 'a pigeon;' भिक्षा-
णां समूहो भैक्षम् ; गर्भिणीणां समूहो गार्भिणम् , c. (8) 'knowing
or studying; व्याकरणं अधीते वेद वा वैयाकरणः 'one who
studies grammar, a grammarian,' &c. (9) and to form
abstract nouns ; मुनेः भावः मौनं ' silence,' युवन्-यौवन
'youth;' सुहृदू-सौहार्द friendship'; पृथोर्भावः पार्थवं 'great-

ness, width.' &c. अक-forms derivatives with varivous significations:-(1) उष्ट्र भवः

औष्ट्रकः 'produced from or relating to a camel,' मीष्मे भवः मैष्मकः 'produced in the hot season,' (2) कुलालेन कृतं कौलालकं 'made by a potter,' ब्रह्मणा कृतं ब्राह्मकं ' made


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• For the declension of such words Vido $ 73. a., b.


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