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only. Before these the last vowel of a word with the following consonant if any is dropped; e. g. लघु-लघीयस् , लघिष्ठ, पटु, पटीयस्, पटिष्ठ; महत्-महीयस् , महिष्ठ, &c.

$ 174. The possessive affixes at the end of words and the affix a are dropped before and got and then these terminations are applied subject to the above rnle; e. g. मतिमत् talented मतीयस, मतिष्ठः मेधाविन्-मेधीयस् , मेधिष्ठ; धनिन्-धनीयस्-धनिष्ठ; कर्तृ-करीयस्, करिष्ठ (अतिशयेन कर्ता); स्तोट-स्तवीयस्, स्तविष्ठ; so सजीयस् , स्रजिष्ठ from after one having a garland &c.

$ 175. र is substituted for the ऋ (short) of a base preceded by a consonant before ईयस् , इष्ठ and the Tad. aff. इमन् ; e. g.

comp. क्रशीयस् superl. क्रशिष्ठ
इढ 'strong, firm'
द्रढीयस

द्रढिष्ठ
परिवृढ 'head, chief' परित्रढीयस्

परिवदिष्ठ ' प्रथीयस्

प्रथिष्ठ भ्रशीयत्

भ्रशिष्ठ सदीयस्

म्रविष्ठ $ 176. The following is an alphabetical list of the irregular comparatives and superlatives that are commonly met with:Positive Comparative

Superlative अन्तिक 'near's

नैदीयस्

नदिष्ठ STEY 'little's

अल्पोयस,

अल्पिष्ठ, कमीयस्

कनिष्ठ

कृश 'thin'

पृथु 'broad भृश 'much' मृदु 'soft

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अजादो (i.e. ईयम् and इष्ठ) गुणवचनादेव | Pin. V. 3. 18. + विन्मतालुक् । तुरिष्टेनेयः सु | Pin. VI. 4, 154. * ऋतो र हलादले घोः | Pan. VI. 4. 161. $ अन्तिक बढयोर्नेदसाधौ | Pan. V. 3. 36. १ यवाल्पयोः कननन्यतरस्याम् | Pin, V. 3. 64,

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35 'wide'*
शिष quickt
क्षुद 'm an,' 'small'
गुरु 'heary'
तृ 'restless or anxious'

'satisfied
of long'
दूर distant
प्रशस्य 'praiseworthy
प्रिय dear
बहु 'much
बहुल
बाढ 'firm, well's
युवन् 'young'T
विपुल 'much'
वृद्ध old
वृन्दारक 'great, lovely'
FEYTT 'steady'
स्थल 'big, large'
fFc 'innch'
इस्व 'short'

द्राधीयस्
दवीयस्
श्रेयस् or ज्यायस्
प्रेयस्
भूयस्
बहीयस्
साधीयस
यवीयम् , कनीयस्
ज्यायस्
वर्षीयस्, ज्यायस्
वृन्दीयस्
स्थेयस्
स्थवीयस
स्फेयस्
इसीयस

ट्राषिष्ठ इविष्ठ श्रेष्ठ or ज्येष्ठ प्रेष्ठ भूयिष्ठ बंहिष्ठ साधिष्ठ यविष्ठ, कनिष्ठ ज्येष्ठ वर्षिष्ठ, ज्येष्ठ वृन्दिष्ठ स्येष्ठ स्थविष्ट स्फेष्ठ इसिष्ठ

* पियस्थिरस्फिर-उरु बहुलगुरुवृद्धतृपदीर्घवृन्दारकागां प्रस्थस्फरबंहिंगत्रिपदाधिवृन्दाः | Pin. VI. 4. 156. प्र, स्थ, स्फ, वर, &c. are substituted for प्रिय, स्थिर, स्फिर &c. respectively.

स्थू दूरयाहस्पक्षि पक्षदा गो यणादिपरं पूस्यि च गुगः Pin. VI. 4. 156. The words स्थूल &c. drop their final portion beginning with यण् (स् , र, ल or ) and the preceding vowel takes guna. || प्रशस्यस्य श्रः | ज्य च । वृद्धस्य च | Pan. V, 3. 60-62.

। * बहोलॉपी भूच बहोः । इष्ठस्य पिट् च | Pin. VI. 4. 158-159.

1

$ 177. Sometimes the terminations at an'l af are added to the comp. and super. in GTA and gg to intensify the meaning; as grate यस्तर, पापीयस्तम, श्रेष्ठतर, श्रेष्ठतम.

CHAPTER VII

COMPOUNDS.

$ 178. Vịtti (fa) is the general term for any complex formation in San kt requiring explanation or resolution These Vittis are five in number; viz. mía

or the formation of words from roots by primary affixes; after or the formation of derivative bases from nouns by secondary affixes; ygfa or the formation of derivative verbs from primitive roots; THPT or the formation of a compound word by the composition of several words; and TTTfor the composition of words in which one of several nouns generally alike in form is retained. The first tlıree will be treated in their proper places. We will treat of the last two in this chapter,

$ 179. In Sanskļt simple words, whether substantives, adjectives, verbs or indeclinables, have the power of entering into combination with one another and forming what are called sama'sus',' compound words or in short, compounds.

(a) A compound thus formel may further be compounded with another simple or compound word and this again may become the member of a new compound,

$ 180. In a compound, as a general rule, words are simply joined together, without any relation between the component parts being actually expressed; the whole compound word has the power to express the varions relations that exist between the several From 377 with a to throw together.

अस्

*

=

parts. The last word only takes the case termination required by its grammatical position in a sentence, the remaining words (those ending in a consonant) generally assuming their crude forms before the consonantal case terminations; e. g. विवस् + जनः=विद्वज्जनः (see below), राजन् + पुरुषः राजपुरुषः, &c.

$ 181. Final vowels or consonants (molified as mentioned above) of prece ling members of compounds combine with the initial letters of the succeeding members according to the usual rules of sandhi.

$ 182. In a few cases, the intermediate members retain their case endings in which case the compounds are called Aluk (373); .g. niet: a fool, gruar: name of the eldest Pùndava &c.

§ 183. The expounding of a Sumasa (i. e. giving its Vigraha. ru'ky) consists in the expression of the various relations existing between the objects or ideas denoted by the various members of a sim isa by means of the proper cases or subordinate sentences.

(a) When the l'igraharu'k ya cannot be given or cannot be giren by using the words actually compounded, the compound is called nityasumisa (अविग्रहो नित्यसमासः अस्वपदविग्रहो वा । Sid. Kau.).

§ 181. Compounds are divided into four principal classes:*

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* This is true only generally speaking. For there is a fifth class of compounds riz. HT (j-compounds not governed by any of the rules given under the four classes but explained on the general principle that any subanta pula may be compounded with any other subante pala. Accorling to some there are six kinds of compounds riz. 170 सुग तिङा नामा धातुनाथ तिङा तिङा । सुबन्तेनेति विज्ञेयः समासः षड्विधा बुधैः ।।.g. सुगं सुपा राजरुषः । तिङा पर्वभूस् । नाना कुम्भकरः । धातु ना कटप्र, अजस्त्रम् । निडा तिङा (पबतखादता, खादत मोदना । निङा गुग कृतविचक्षति यस्यां क्रियायां सा न्तविचक्षगा | एहीडादयोन्यपदार्थे इति मयूरध्यसकादौ पाठात्समासः | Sid. Kau,

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(1) Dwandwa or Copulative, (2) Tatpurusha or Determinative, (33) Bihurrihi or Attributive, and (1) Ayayibha'va or Adverbial.

N. B. These names them elves mean nothing i. e, they do not denote any of the characteristics of the different compounds. They are simply proper names distinguishing the various classes from one another (to which they vaguely refer if they do so at all).

DWANDWA OR THE COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS.

§ 185. A Dwandwa compound consists of two or more nouns which, if not con joun lel, woald be connected by the copulative partiele T (anl); as Tra5507 which is eqnal to tra: 5507: T; पाणिगई which is the same as पाणी च पादौ च. There are three species of the Diwandwa, vir. इतरेतरद्वन्द्व, समाहारद्वन्द्व and एकशेष..

§ 186. When the several members of a Dwandwa compound are viewed separately it is called Itaretara Dwandwa; e. g. YET fett form, cut down the Dhava and the Khadira trees.' In this species each member is of equal importance i. e, has its own independent meaning. It takes the dual or the plural according as the objects denoted by it are two or more in number; the gender of the final noun is the gender of the whole;† as chav cock prezi

* 2 -3: Pàn. II. 2. 22.

† The Ekashesha in not strictly speaking a subdivision of Dwandwa. It is a separate Vștti by itself (Vide § 178). Sanskrt grammarians do not regard it as a Dwandwa, though it may be so regardel for the sake of convenience. 'It is not a Dwunlwi,' remirks Bhattoji Dikshita 'as it does not contain more than one subanta,' (À FATEHITTÀ 7).' It should be further remembered that since it is not a sinise its final vowel does not become ud a'tta, as in the case of a Dwandwa compound.

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