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before the rest except st before which they remain unchanged.

$ 160. The cardinal numbers between 100 and 200, 200 and 300, &c. are generally expressel by nreans of अधिक adilel to the number showing the excess and then optionally prefixing the winole to 100, 200, &c; e.g. एकाधिकं शतं or एकाधिकातं 101, द्वादशाधिकं शर्त or द्वादशाधिकशतं 112, पश्चःशरधिकं शतं 150, &c. After 1000 this Trit may be repeated with every multiple of ten or Inundred; ६.g. द्वि-दानवत्यधिकाष्टशताधिकसहस्रम् 1892, एकोनचत्वारिंशदधिकषट्शताधिकसप्तसततिसहत्राधिकं लक्षम् 177639, &c. Similarly उत्तर may also be used instead of अधिक; e.g चतुःपञ्चाशत्तर साशतम् 11. Or these may also be, at times, expressed by the copulative particle च as सप्त च शतानि विंशतिश्च 720.

$ 161. The Tad. affix | may be used, instead of अधिक, in the case of the cardinal numbers ending in दशन्, the numeral विशति and those ending in शत् i. e. in the case of the numerals 111-169, 211-259, 311-359, &c. before which the final अन्, अति and अत् are dropped; e. g. एकादशं शतम् 111, विशे शतं 120, पश्चाशं शतं 150, सप्तदर्श द्विशतं 217, त्रिंशं त्रिशतं 330, and so on.

$ 162. The ordinals from एक, द्वि, त्रि, चतुर anl षare irregularly formed. The ordinals from other numerals up to दशन् inclusive are formed by dropping the final 7 and adding ħ and

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*यष्टाः संख्यायामबहुत्रीह्य शीत्योः । त्रेस्त्रयः । विभाषा चत्वारिंशल्लभृतौ सर्वेषाम् । Pan. VI. 3. 47-49. । तदस्पिनधिकमिति दशान्ताड्डः । शदन्तविंशतेश्च | Pan. V 2 45 ..

* षट कतिकतिपयचतुरा थुक | Pin. V. 2. 51; so कतिथः 'च तरच्छ यतागयक्षरलीपश्च' Vart, तुरीय, तुर्थः । द्वेस्तीयः । ः Pin. V.2.51,55.

after दशन् up to नवदशन् by simply dropping the न्. The ordinals from fortfa* above are formed by adding or by dropping the ति of विंशति and the final consonant of the rest, in the case of com pound namerals, if there be a final vowel that vowel is changed to अ. while the simple ones ending in a rowel i.e. षष्टि, सप्तति, अशीति And नवति form their ordinals in the first way only: as एकषष्टः or एकषष्टितमः; but षष्टितम only; शत has invariably शततम.

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Declension of the numerals (eardinals and ordinals).

$ 163. एक, (एका fem.), द्वि, (द्वा fem.), त्रि (तिet fem.), and

. चतुर (चतम fem.) are all adjectives and take the gender, number and case of the nouns they qualify,

$164. एक is declined in the sing. (and in the dual and plural also), and for in the dual alone. For further particulars see § 153. fa and चतुर are declined in the plu. alone. e. g.

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* शियादि-यस्तमडपतरस्याम् । षष्टयादेश्वासंख्यादेः | Pin. V. 2. 56, 58. अनि त्रिचतुरो स्त्रियां तिसतस | Pin. VII. 2. 99.

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६ 165. पञ्चन-नवरशन. Tlrese are also adjectives agreeing in case with the nouns to which they are applied. They are deelined in the pl. and are uniform in all the three genders.

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सप्तन्, नवन् and the following cardinals up to नवरशन् ought to be declined like पञ्चन्.

$ 166. ऊनविंशति, विंशति and other cardinal numbers up to नवनवति are all feminine substantives, the numerals शत, सहस्र, &c. are all neuter, -with the exception of which is mis, and fem., कोटि which is fem. and शंकु and जलधि both of which are mms., -and have no declensional peculiarities. They are decline in the sing. and so used with a plural noun; e. g. पंचविंशतिर्बाह्मणाः 25 Brahmanas; एकादशाधिकशतेन or एकादशोत्तरेण शतेन नरैः or स्त्रोभिः by 111 men or women; एकोनसहस्रेण रूपके with Rs.999, &c. They may be made to have duals and plurals by being used as fixed standards of counting; e. 9. ATATTI FATTTT: many twenties of Brihmanas; द्वे शते नारीणाम् two hundreds of women &c.

$ 167. The or liuals are declined regularly except: 747 (see § 15.5) ani faq anlaalt which are optionally declinel like proaguns in the Dat. Ab. Gen. and Loc. sing.; t. g. fratteftatur, &c. ftalarar-ftarafar: &c.

Numeral Adverbs.

$ 163. (a) #KT once, ra: twice, ra: thrice, 75: four times; front onward adverbs of frequency are formed by adding 7: before which final 7 is dropped; e. 9. 977: five times,

: seven times &c. (6) एकभा*or ऐकध्वम् in one way or part, द्विधा or द्वेधा or द्वैधं in kiro ways or parts; त्रिधा or त्रेधा or वैधम् in three ways, &c., चतुर्धा in four ways, षोढा or षड्धा in six ways, सप्तधा, अष्टधा, &c.

(c) TT: singly, one by one; fry: two and two, by twos; so feru: शतशः &e.

$ 169. Other derivatives from the numerals:

(a) By the Taddhita affix of which is added to numerals ending in yo and fa. e. g. 927: bought for five (Rs. &c. ) raftT:t bought for forty; so far: bought for twenty (coins, &c.).

(6) By means of the Tad, affix gg in the sense of “consisting of parts" or "collection."

८. g. चतुष्टय (चतुष्टयी.fem.) consisting of fonr parts or a collection of fo:ır; so T979 (fem.-oi); jy is optionally ehanged to अय after द्वि and त्रि; e. g. इय or द्वितय (-यी fem.) twofold, consisting of two parts or a pair; 7 or 1179 (-zit fem.) threefold or consisting of three parts, a collection of three, a triad.

संस्था या विधार्थ धा । अधिकरणवि चाले च | एका द्वोध्यमुत्र-पतरस्याम् |दियोश्च धनञ् ! एवाच | Pin. V. 3. 42-49. | See chap. IX Intro. rules,

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(c) By means of 37 and sta e. g. Ter a collection of six, 92 a collection of five, दशत् a collection of ten, a decad, &c.

CHAPTER VI. DEGREES OF COMPARISON. ६ 170. तर and तम are the most common terminations of the comparative and the superlative degrees respectively.* They are added to that crude form of words which they assume before the Inst. dual termination; e. g. अयमेतयोरतिशयेन लघुः लघुतरः, अयमेषामतिशयेन लचुः लघुतमः; similarly युवन्-युवतर, युवतम; विद्वस्-विद्वत्तर, विद्वत्तमः प्राच-प्राक्तर, प्राक्तम; धनिन्-धनितर; धनितम; धर्मबुधधर्मभुत्तर, धर्मभुत्तम; गुरु-गुरुतर, गुरुतम, &c. अति-अतितर, अतितम; उत्-उत्तर, उत्तम, &c.

$ 171. Before these the final and 5 of a pra'tiplika are optionally shortened; e. g. श्रीतरा or श्रितरा, श्रीतमा or श्रितमा; घेमूतरा (more lame) or घेतरा, घेमूतमा, घेभुतमा, &c.

$ 172. तर and तम when attached to verbs, and indecinables form. ing adverbs, assume the forms of तराम् and तमा। पचतितराम, पचतितमाम् ; उच्चस्तराम, उच्चैस्तमाम् , नितराम्, नितमाम्, so सुतराम् &c.; but उच्चैस्तरः adj. (higher).

$ 173. ईयस् is another termination of the comparative degree and 8 of the superlative. These are added to adjectives of quality

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* अतिशायने तमबिष्ट नौ । द्विवचनविभज्योपपदे तर बीयसुन । तिङञ्च | तरतम E: 1 Pán. V. 3. 55. 57, 56; I. 1. 22. When atis'aya or excess of one thing over many is to be shown on and T are the affixes usel; and when out of two things one is to be separated as possessing some quality in excess तर and ईयम् are affixed. तर and तम may also be added to verbs.

+ किमेतिडव्ययघादाम्बद्रव्यप्रकर्षे | Pan. v. 4. 11. आम् is added to r and 7 after 4, or a word ending in g or a subanta or tisanta xcept when they form adjectives,

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