Imatges de pàgina

sh-a, Et sh-t-ya, sh-t-ra, 1 sh-g-r-ya, sh--va, sh-th-ra, 7 sh-th-ya, so sh-na, soy sh-?-ya, 69 shapa, 69 sh-p-ra, CA sh-ma, cash-ya.

सकs-ka, स्ख s-kha, स्त s-a, स्त्य 3-t-ya, स्त्र or स्त्र s-t-ra, स्त्व 3-t-va q sh-va, Fit s-thu, FT S-NA, FF3 S-1-ya, Fy s-pa, FT s-pha, FT s-ma, FIT s-ya, s-ra, FT E-va, FFT s-sa.

a h-ui, a ha-na, #h-ma, z r-ha, h-ra, ef l-ha, g h-va,

Sometimes five consonants are found in conjunction: e. g. itrat r-t-s-n-ya, as in watetezi.

12. As santhi is of primary importance in Sanskrt, vira'mı or pause can be indicated only at the end of a sentence. The signs of punctuation, therefore, are only two, I and II. The former is usel to mark the close of a sentence or the first hali oa sloka or poetical stanza; the latter is employed to denote the close

of a sloka.

(a) The sign callel Arizrz!ı (and which represents half » Arilhikira ) is generally employed to mark the elision of short भ after ए or ओ; e. g. तेऽपि (ते + अपि), कालोऽस्ति (कालो+ arita ). The double mark 55 is sometimes used to indicate the elision of T after initial long sti; TUTTE=AUSSE.

(C) The mark • is sometimes use to show that something is ovittel, an i which to be understood from the context; e. g. 3° my stand for TT, TT for Fift Titreff, &c.

§ 13. Short vowels when followed by conjunct consonants are said to be pr98 11:ally long.

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14. The vowels , g, H, and the syllables 875, and was are eallad Guņa; the vowels T, , *t and the syllables wry and I are called Vfudhi.* The Guņa and Vîddhi vowels and syllables that are substituted for the simple vowels will appear from the following table:

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§ 15. The three semivowels a, n and I are sometimes nasalised and then they are written with the anunåsika sign over them, as , लं, ई.

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These are combined to express larger figures precisely in the same way as in English; 22€ 125, Gyo 540, &c.



$ 17. By Sandhi (from together, and to join )



• इद्धिरादैछ । ३.देखणः । उरण रपरः। Pin. 1. 1. 2, 1, 51,

is meant the coalescence of two letters coming in immediate contact with each other.*

(a) Samhitat or sandhi is necessary in the case of the internal structure of a pita, prepositions and roots, and a compound word (समास), while in that of a sentence i. e. in the case of the finals and initials of the different words in a sentence, it depends on the will of the writer,



18. If a simple vowel, short or long, be followed by a similar vowel short or long, the substitute for them both is a long vowel;s e. g. दैत्य +अरिः दैत्यारिः; अन+भासीत् अत्रासात; यदा+ अभवत्याभवत; विद्या+भातुर:=विद्यातुरः eager to gain knowledge; इति+इव-इतीव; अपि+ईक्षते-अपीसते; श्री+ईशः = श्रीचः भानु:+उदयः=भानूदयः; साधु+अचु=साधूचुः; चमू+ऊर्जः=चमूर्जः the strength of the army; कर्तृ+जुकवृशुः कृ+ऋकार=कृकारः; होत

+लकारः =EAT: the ļkâra pionounced by the sacrificer (since there is no long a long is substituted for both). (a) If ऋ or ल be followed by a short ऋ or ल, short

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परः संनिकर्षः संहिता | Pan. 1. 4. 109. Samhita is the extreme contingity of letters,

1 संहितैकपदे नित्या नित्या धातूपसर्गयोः । नित्या समासे वाक्ये तु मा विवशामपछते || Sid. Kau. This couplet gives the rule for the observance of Sandhi.

भकः सवर्णे दीर्घः | Pan. VI. 1. 101.

are ल is optionally substituted for both;* होतृ+कारः =होहकारः; and also होतृऋकारः (vide $ 22. sec. b. ), so three forms altogether होतृकारः होतृकारः; and होतृकार; होत+लकारः=होल्लकारः and. also होतृलकारः.

$ 19. When a or आ is followed by इ, उ, ऋ or ल short or long, the TT letter corresponding to the latter takes the place of

गुण both t; e.g. उप+इन्द्रः-उपेद्रः Vishnu परम+ईश्वरः=परमेश्वरः the great lord; रमा+इच्छा-रमेच्छा, the wish of Raina; यथा+ईप्सितं -यथेसितम् according as what is desired, हित+उपदेशः=हितोपदेशः friendly instruction; कृष्ण+ऊरुः=कृष्णोरुः Krshya's thigh; गङ्गा+ उद-गंगोदकम्, महा + अरुः= महोरुः, कृष्ण+ऋद्धिः=कृष्णद्धिः K:shya's prosperity; महा+ऋषि-महर्षिः a great sage; तव+लकारः =तवल्कारः The !kāra pronounced by you.

(a) If a consonant be followed hy homogeneous consonants except the nasals, the semivowels, and 7, the first of them is optionally droppedy; कृष्ण+ऋद्धिः कृष्णाद्धः by the general rule; then कृष्णर+++इ=कृष्णधिः by this rule the द being dropped; and also a third form supra; ( vide $ 21, sex, d.).

(6) A consonant of the first five classes except f couning a ter a semivowel is optionally doubled; so तवल्कार also becomes तबलकारः, तवल्लकारः and तवल्लंकारः, 4 forms altogether.

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सवर्णे वा । लति सवर्ण ल वा । Vartikas on the above. ६ 17. B.

• | Pan. VI. 1. 86. • इद्धिरादेच | सवर्णे । Pan, VHI. 4. 65.

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Exceptions:-Viddhi substitute takes place in the following



(a) When a word ending in is followed by, and a प्र by जह, कट and ऊदि; 4. 9. प्रष्ठ+अहः=प्रष्ठाहः, chief guess; or this may be the acc. pl. of प्रष्ठवाद a young bull trained to the yoke. प्र+महः, प्रौहः principal reasoning, 30 प्रौढः full grown; प्रौतिः, but प्रोडवान्.

(6) अ+अहिनी-अलौहिणी, a complete army.t (The change of a to o will be explained furtheron).

(c) When FY is followed by t and srca both derived from fr to go; e. g. FT+SC: etc, one acting wiltully; self willed; ET +रिणा-स्वैरिणी 0 स्वेर, स्वैरी, (स्वेन रितुं शीलमस्य इति). (d) When 37 is followed by pen and there is an Inst Tat;

तुख+ऋतःखार्तः blessel with happiness (उखेन ऋतः); but परवर्तः very adorable (परमश्चासौ ऋतश्च).

(८) When the word ऋग comes after प्र. वस्सतर, कम्बल, वसन, auit; 7+TETT=Trott, principal debt, so Tera Crof debt for a

* एत्यधत्यल्स | Pin. VI. 1. 89. The first part of the sutra (vit प्रत्यवति.) forms a counter exception to $ 20. a. ( which see.);

अशा हेन्यामु संख्यानम्' 'सादीररिगो' 'कने च तती या समासे' 'प्रवत्सतरकम्बलवमनार्गदशामृणे' Vārtikas on the above Sutra. f † Properly an army consisting of 21870 chariots, as many

, elephants, 65610 horse and

109350 foot. अक्षौहिण्याः प्रसंख्याता रथानां द्विजसत्तमाः । संख्या गणिततत्वज्ञैः सहस्राण्येकविंशतिः ॥ शनान्युपरि चैाटी तथा भयश्च मततिः । गजानां तु परीमाणमेतदेव विनिदिशेत् ।। ज्ञेयं शतसहस्रं तु सहस्राणि नवैव

त | नरागामपि पञ्चाशच्छतानि त्रीगि चानघाः || पञ्चषष्टि सहस्त्राण तथा धानां शता न च | दशे. नरागि पट पाहुपया दिह संख्यया | Mah Bhār. Ad. P. 11. 23. 26.

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