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LIFE AND DEATH
KING RICHARD III.
SCENE I. London. A Street.
Glo. Now is the winter of our discontent Made glorious summer by this sun of York;' And all the clouds, that lowr'd upon our house, In the deep bosom of the ocean buried. Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths; Our bruised arms hung up for monuments; Our stern alarums chang'd to merry meetings, Our dreadful marches to delightful measures." Grim-visag'd war hath smooth'd his wrinkled front; And now,-instead of mounting barbed steeds,3 To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,
this sun of York;] Alluding to the cognizance of Edward IV. which was a sun, in memory of the three suns, which are said to have appeared at the battle which he gained over the Lancastrians at Mortimer's Cross.
2-delightful measures.] A measure was, strictly speaking, a court dance of a stately turn, though the word is sometimes employed to express dances in general.
barbed steeds,] i. e. steeds caparisoned in a warlike manner. Burbed, however, may be no more than a corruption of barded. Equus bardatus, in the Latin of the middle ages, was a horse adorned with military trappings.
He capers1 nimbly in a lady's chamber,
I, that am rudely stamp'd, and want love's majesty,
He capers] War capers. This is poetical, though a little harsh; if it be York that capers, the antecedent is at such a distance, that it is almost forgotten.
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,] By dissembling is not meant hypocritical nature, that pretends one thing, and does another: but nature that puts together things of a dissimilar kind, as a brave soul and a deformed body. Feature is used here, as in other pieces of the same age, for beauty in general.
And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover,] Shakspeare very diligently inculcates, that the wickedness of Richard proceeded from his deformity, from the envy that rose at the comparison of his own person with others, and which incited him to disturb the pleasures that he could not partake. JOHNSON.
7 inductions dangerous,] Preparations for mischief. The induction is preparatory to the action of the play.
And, if king Edward be as true and just,
Dive, thoughts, down to my soul! here Clarence
Enter CLARENCE, guarded, and BRAKENBURY. Brother, good day: What means this armed guard, That waits upon your grace?
Glo. Upon what cause? Clar. Because my name is-George. Glo. Alack, my lord, that fault is none of yours; He should, for that, commit your godfathers:O, belike, his majesty hath some intent, That you shall be new christen'd in the Tower. But what's the matter, Clarence? may I know?
Clar. Yea, Richard, when I know; for, I protest, As yet I do not: But, as I can learn, He hearkens after prophecies, and dreams; And from the cross-row plucks the letter G, And says-a wizard told him, that by G His issue disinherited should be;
And, for my name of George begins with G,
Glo. Why, this it is, when men are rul'd by
"Tis not the king, that sends you to the Tower; My lady Grey, his wife, Clarence, 'tis she,
toys] Fancies, freaks of imagination.
That tempers him to this extremity.
Clar. By heaven, I think, there is no man secure, But the queen's kindred, and night-walking heralds That trudge betwixt the king and mistress Shore. Heard you not, what an humble suppliant Lord Hastings was to her for his delivery?
Glo. Humbly complaining to her deity Got my lord chamberlain his liberty. I'll tell you what, I think, it is our way, If we will keep in favour with the king, To be her men, and wear her livery: The jealous o'er-worn widow, and herself, Since that our brother dubb'd them gentlewomen, Are mighty gossips in this monarchy.
Brak. I beseech your graces both to pardon me; His majesty hath straitly given in charge, That no man shall have private conference, Of what degree so ever, with his brother.
Glo. Even so? an please your worship, Brakenbury, You may partake of any thing we say: We speak no treason, man;-We say, the king Is wise, and virtuous; and his noble queen Well struck in years; fair, and not jealous:We say, that Shore's wife hath a pretty foot, A cherry lip,
A bonny eye, a passing pleasing tongue;
Brak. With this, my lord, myself have nought
The jealous o'er-worn widow, and herself,] That is, the Queen and Shore.
Glo. Naught to do with mistress Shore? I tell thee, fellow,
He that doth naught with her, excepting one,
Brak. What one, my lord?
Glo. Her husband, knave:-Would'st thou betray me?
Brak. I beseech your grace to pardon me; and, withal,
Forbear your conference with the noble duke. Clar. We know thy charge, Brakenbury, and will obey.
Glo. We are the queen's abjects,' and must obey. Brother, farewell: I will unto the king; And whatsoever you will employ me in,Were it, to call king Edward's widow-sister,I will perform it to enfranchise you. Mean time, this deep disgrace in brotherhood, Touches me deeper than you can imagine.
Clar. I know it pleaseth neither of us well. Glo. Well, your imprisonment shall not be long; I will deliver you, or else lie for you:2 Mean time, have patience.
I must perforce; farewell. [Exeunt CLARENCE, BRAKENBURY, and Guard. Glo. Go, tread the path that thou shalt ne'er return,
Simple, plain Clarence!-I do love thee so,
-the queen's abjects,] The most servile of her subjects, who must of course obey all her commands.
2- lie for you:] i. e. be imprisoned in your stead. To lie was anciently to reside, as appears by many instances in these volumes.