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THE

HINDU AT HOME

BEING

SKETCHES OF HINDU DAILY LIFE.

BY

THE Rev. J. E. PADFIELD, B.D.,

Missionary, C. M, S., Masulipatam.

Ancestor-worship, in some form or other, is the
beginning, the middle, and the end of what

is known as the Hindu religion.
(Professor Bhattacharja, in Tagore Law Lecture.)

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CONTENTS.

Pages,

CHAPTER III.

THE HINDU DAILY ROUND.

The motive for religious observances-Contrasted
with Christian motives—Divisions of a Brahmin's
life-Early morning observances-Prayers from
the purānas-Teeth cleansing-The bath-Prayer
to the rivers-Sandyāvandanam-Achamanam-
Sankalpam - Sun worship-Pitratarpanam-The
Gāyatri - Midday Sundyāvandanam - Dēvatār.
chana--The kitchen its uses and contents-House-

Pages.

hold images-Their worship-Nivēdanam-Lingaits-Taking meals-Precautions against interruptions-Order of sitting Grace before meat-Drinking water must be ceremonially pureEvening Sandyāvandanam-Prayer to Varuna-If on a journey-If too ill to bathe-Prayer on retiring for the night-Women have no share in ceremonies-Each house has its private chapelNo public religious teaching-Hopefulness produced by the Hindus intensely religious nature

34-52

CHAPTER IV.

THE HINDU WOMAN'S RELIGION. Woman's low position in Hinduism-Quotations from Manu on this subject-Definition of a wife in Mahābhārata-Sīta and Rāma in RāmayanaDifficulty of arriving at a clear idet of woman's religious position-Woman has no religious status apart from her husband-Illustrated by quotations from Hindu writings—Woman's ordinary daily round-Rise before day break-Mēlukolupu or morning

song-Gõpika Gīta—The tilakam Cooking-Woman's worship before the midday meal-T'he woman's images not consecratedLingam Worship-Lamp Worship-Mother instructing her children-Woman can only worship with the consent of her husband-Good deeds of a wife may benefit her husband, but his good deeds confer no spiritual benefit upon her—This illustrated from the code of Parāsara–Hindu woman as a widow-Sati-A widow's duties as laid down by Manu-The religion of low caste women-Little more tban demonolatry or fetichism-At epidemics -At festivals—Women go pilgrimages Movement towards bettering the status of women-The Bible view of woman's status

53–70

CHAPTER V.

THE HINDU SACRED THREAD.

The Yajnopavitam a mark of being a dvijaQuotation from Manu as to who may wear the thread-Others besides the three higher castes wear it-The goldsmith caste and its privileges Low caste men are not free to dress, or travel about

Pages.

as they may choose--An Orissa Rajah assumed authority to invest with the thread-The Bengal Vaidyas wear the thread—The material of which the thread should be made–The Kshatriyas an extinct casteThe number of threads and skeins in the Yajnopavitam-The Brahman's knot-The investiture, when it should be-Ceremonies connected with the Upanayanam-Sacredness of deer skin-The father teaches the novice the GāyatriWhen a new thread must be put on-Defilement necessitating a new thread-Ceremonies connected with replacing a defiled thread-Disposal of discarded thread Various ways of wearing the thread -Importance of the thread

71-81

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CHAPTER VI.

THE HINDU SACRED MARKS. Anglo-Indian lack of information on Hindu customs—The Pundrams not mentioned in the VēdasSacred marks not now distinctive of caste-Hindus divided into worshippers of Vishnu or SivaBrahma not worshipped—The three schools of philosophy-Urdva Pundrams and Tiryak pundrams-On what parts of the body daubedVaishnava marks-The materials with which made-Their colour and shape-RāmānujachāryaHostility of Rāmānujās to Saivas-Vadagalais and Tengalais-Distinguished by shape of forehead mark-Mode of putting on pundrams and the mantrams which should be repeated-Madhyāchāryā and the Madhvas—Their peculiar marks-The Siva marks, how put on and with what materials -Smartbas and Lingatháris-Jangams-The dressing case-Absolute necessity of putting on marks-Coloured marks changed to white as a sign of mourning-Women's marks—The seal in the forehead mentioned in the Revelation

82-93

CHAPTER VII.

THE HINDU TONSURE.

Peculiar modes of wearing the hair-Hindus themselves often unable to give a reason for their customs-Cutting off hair symbolical of casting off sin-The Sikha, Cudimi, Zuttu-The Roman Catholic tonsure-A Brahmin not a Brahmin with

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