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If his scholars hate the muses, being presented unto them in the shape of fiends and furies. Junius* complains "de insolenti carnificina" of his schoolmaster, by whom conscindebatur flagris septies aut octies in dies singulos.” Yea, hear the lamentable verses of poor Tusser in his own life:
" From Paul's I went, to Eton sent,
At ouce I had.
To me poor lad." Such an Orbiliust mars more scholars than he makes: their tyranny hath caused many tongues to stammer, which spake plain by nature, and whose stuttering at first was nothing else but fears quavering on their speech at their master's presence; and whose mauling them about their heads hath dulled those who in quickness exceeded their master.
He makes his school free to him, who sues to him "in forma pauperis.” And surely learning is the greatest alms that can be given. But he is a beast, who, . because the poor scholar can not pay him his wages, pays the scholar in his whipping. Rather are diligent lads to be encouraged with all excitements to learning. This minds me of what I have heard concerning Mr. Bust, that worthy late schoolmaster of Eton, who would never suffer any wandering begging scholar (such as justly the statute hath ranked in the forefront of rogues) to come into his school, but would thrust him out with earnestness, (however privately charitable unto him,) lest his schoolboys should be disheartened from their books, by seeing some scholars, after their studying in the University, preferred to beggary.
He spoils not a good school to make thereof a bad college, therein to teach his scholars logic. For besides that logic may have an action of trespass against grammar for encroaching on her liberties, syllogisms are solecisms taught in the school, and oftentimes they are forced afterward in the University to unlearn the fumbling skill they had before.
Out of his school he is no whit pedantical in carriage or discourse; contenting himself to be rich in Latin, though he doth not jingle with it in every company wherein he comes.
To conclude, let this amongst other motives make schoolmasters careful in their place, that the eminencies of their scholars have commended the memories of their schoolmasters to posterity, who otherwise in obscurity had altogether been forgotten. Who had ever heard of R. Bond, in Lancashire, but for the breeding of learned Ascham, his scholar? or of Hartgrave, in Brundly school,
• FRANCIS JUNIUS. who died in 1602, professor of divinity at Leyden, whose autobiography contains brief potices of his school and schoolmasters-is probably referred to. He was the author of Commentaries, Hebrew Lexicon, Translations of the Scriptures, etc.
† NICHOLAS UDAL, Head Master of Eton College, from 1530 to 1555, and of Westminster from 1555 10 1564. through the Schoolmaster of Roger Ascham, and Thomas Tusser's Account of his own life, seems destined to an unenviable immortality for his fogging propensities. He was born in Hampshire in 1506, educated at Oxford, and died in 1564. He was the author of a " Moral play" entitled Ralph Royster Dogster.
1 ORBILIUS PUPILLUS, was a native of Beneventum, where having received a good education, served as a soldier in Macedonia, taught for some time in his native place, until in the consulship of Cicero, B.C. 63, he removed to Rome and opened a school, which was attended by Horace, who seems to have carried away with him a stinging remembrance of his flogging propensities, and for which he has made him infamous to all time. In his Epistle to Augus. tus, (Ep. 11.'1, 70, he calls him
plagosum-fond of Alogging. Suetonius in his Liber de Illustribus Grammaticis describes Orbilius in these words : Fuit autem natura acerbæ non modo in anti sophistus, quos omni sermone lacrraril, sed etiam in discipulus, ut Horatius significat, plagosum eum appellans, et Domitius Marsus scribens :
quos Orbilius ferula scuticaque cecidet. The ferula, the general instrument of punishment in school. was the stalk of a reed or cane of that name in which Prometheus conveyed the spark of fire from heaven. Many teachers act as though they thought some of the divine fire had impregnated the stalk for future use. Scutica was a lash, and a more flexible and severe instrument of punishment, like the rau hide, maile of uotanned leather twisted.
Orbilius lived to be nearly one huudred years old. and must have had a more cheerful temper than Horace gave him credit for. His native city erected a statue to his memory. He is said to have written a book on school-keeping.
in the same county, but because he was the first did teach worthy Doctor Whitaker ? nor do I honor the memory of Mulcaster* for anything so much, as for his scholar, that gulf of learning, Bishop Andrews. This made the Athenians, the day before the great feast of Theseus, their founder, to sacrifice a ram to the memory of Conidas, his schoolmaster that first instructed him.
OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 1728-1774. We shall have occasion to notice some of the peculiarities in Goldsmith's own education, and of bis experience as a teacher in the republication in a future number of his admirable Essay on Education, in which he claims to have anticipated some of the suggestions of Rousseau in his Emilius. The portraitures in the Deserted Village, whether drawn from Irish or English life, are among the classic characters of our language.
THE VILLAGE SCHOOLMASTER.
Beside yon straggling fence that skirts the way
JAMES DELILLE, 1738–1813. JAMES DELILLE, was born in Auvignon, in 1733, educated in Paris, and made 'Professor at Amiens, in 1760, and afterward in Paris,-
* RICHARD MULOASTER was born at Carlisle, educated at Eton under Udal, and at Kings' College, Cambridge, and Christ Church, Oxford.—commenced teaching in 1659, and appointed first master of Merchant Tailors' School 1561, where he served till 1596, when he was made upper master of St. Paul's school, -died in 1611. He was a severe disciplinarian, but received many marks of grateful respect from his pupils, when they came of age and reflected on his fidelity and care. He was a good Latin, Greek, and Oriental scholar. His Latin verses spoken on the occasion of one of Queen Elizabeth's visits to Kenilworth Castle, are considered favorable specimens of his I atinity. He made a contribution to the literature of his profession, under the title of Posilions. ioherein those primitire Circumstances be considered which are necessary for the training up of children, either for Skill in their books. or Health in their Bodies. London, 1581."
translated Virgil's Georgics into French verse, and afterward composed an original work of the same character, entitled Jardins. Driven from France by the revolutionary outbreak, he afterward resided in Switzerland and Germany. In 1792, he published the Country Gentlemen, (Homme des Champs) a poem in five cautos, in which he depicts country life in various characters and aspects--and among others, that of the school and the schoolmaster. We copy the last in an English translation by John Maunde. Some of the finest strokes are borrowed from Goldsmith's picture--unless both are copied from the same original. He died in 1813.
THE VILLAGE SCHOOLMASTER.
Nor distant far the birch is seen to rise
chance the breeze its boughs should lightly shake
In spite of pride, in office, great or low,
ROBERT LLOYD, 1733—1764. ROBERT LLOYD was born in London in 1733. His father was under-master at Westminster School, and after completing his education at Cambridge, became usher under his father, without bringing to the work that moral fitness and love for teaching, without which it becomes intolerable drudgery. He soon left the occupation in disgust, and tried to earn a subsistence by his pen. He died poor in 1764.
A SCHOOL USHER.
Were I at once empowered to show
it hurts me to the soul,
THE SCHOOL AND THE TEACHER IN LITERATURE.
WILLIAM SHENSTONE, 1714-1763. WILLIAM SHENSTONE was born at Leasowes, in the parish of HalesOwen, Shropshire, in 1714. He was taught to read at a "dame school,” the house, and teacher of which, have been immortalized in his poem of the Schoolmistress-spent four years at Pembroke College, Oxford, and then impoverished himself in embellishing a small paternal estate, which he made the envy of men of wealth, and the admiration of men of taste. His poems, essays, and lectures, were collected and published after his death, which occurred in 1703. His “Schoolmistress,” a descriptive sketch in imitation of Spenser, ranks in poetry, with the paintings of Teniers and Wilkie, for its force and truthfulness to nature, as well as its quiet humor.
THE SCHOOLMISTRESS. (1.)
Such as I oft have chanced to espy,
In every village mark'd with little spire,
And oft-times, on vagaries idly bent,
And all in sight doth rise a birchin tree, (2.)
And as they looked, they found their horror grew,