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but by the professors, of all the experiments that succeed, signed by the persons who made the trial.
That the popular and received errors in experimental pliilosoplıy (with whichi, like weeds in a neglected garden, it is now almost all overgrown,) shall be evinced by trial, and taken notice of in the public lectures, that they may no longer abuse the credulous, and beget new ones by consequence or similitude.
That every third year (after the full settlement of the foundation,) the College shall give an account in print, in proper and aucient Latin, of the fruits of their triennial industry.
That every professor resident shall have his scholar to wait upon him in his chamber, and at table, whom he shall be obliged to breed up in natural philosopliy, and render an account of his progress to the assembly, from whose election he received him, and therefore is responsible to it, both for the care of liis education, and the just and civil usage of him.
That the scholar shall understand Latin very well, and be moderately initiated in the Greek, before he be capable of being chosen into the service, and that lie shall not remain in it above seven years.
That his lodging shall be with the professor whom he serves.
That no professor shall be a married man, or a divine, or lawyer in practice, only physic he may be allowed to prescribe, because the study of that art is a great part of the duty of his place, and the duty of that is so great that it will not suffer him to lose much time in mercenary practice.
That the professors shall in the College wear tl:e habit of ordinary masters of art in the universities, or of doctors, if any of them be so.
That they shall all keep an inviolable and exemplary friendship with one another, and that the assembly shall lay a considerable pecuniary mulct upon any one who shall be proved to have entered so far into a quarrel as to give uncivil language to his brother profe sor; and that the perseverence in any enmity shall be punished by the Governors with expulsion.
That the chaplain shall eat at the master's table, (paying his twenty pounds a year as the others do.) and that he shall read pruyers once a day at least, little before supper-time; that he shall preach in the chapel every Sunday morning, and catechise in the afternoon the scholars and the school-boy; that he shall every month administer the Holy Sacrament; that he shall not trouble himself and his auditors with the controversies of divinity, but only teach God in his just commandments, and in his wonderful works.
That the school may be built so as to contain about two hundred boys.
That it be divided into four classes, not as others are ordinarily into six or seven, because we suppose that the children sent hither to be initiated in things as well as words, onght to have past the two or three first, and to have attained the age of about thirteen years, being already well advanced in the Latin grammar and some authors.
That none, though never so rich, shall pay any thing for their teaching; and that if any professor shall be convicted to have taken any money in consideration of his pains at the school, he shall be expelled with ignominy by the Governors; but if any persons of great estate and quality, finding their sons much better proficients in learning here than boys of the same age commonly are at other schools, shall not think fit to receive an obligation of so near concernment without returning some marks of acknowledgment, they may, if they please, (or nothing is to be demanded.) bestow some little rarity or curiosity upon the Society in recompense of their trouble.
And because it is deplorable to consider the loss which children make of their time at most schools, employing or rather casting away six or seven years in the learning of words only, and that too very imperfectly:
That a method be here established for the infusing knowledge and language at the same time into them; and that this may be their apprenticeship in natural philosophy. This we conceive may be done, by breeding them in authors or pieces of authors, who treat of some parts of nature, and who may be understood with as much ease and pleasure as those which are commonly taught; guch are in Latin, Varro, Cato, Columella, Pliny, part of Celsus, and of Seneca, Cicero de Divinatione, de Natura Deorum, and several scattered pieces, Virgi's Georgics, Grotius, Nemesianus, Manilius; and because the truth is, we want good poets (I mean we have but few) who have purposely treated of solid and learned, that is, natural matters, (the most part indulging to the weakness of the world, and feeding it either with the follies of love, or with the fables of gods and heroes,) we conceive that one book ought to be compiled of all the scattered little parcels among the ancient poets that night serve for the advancement of natural sciences, and which would make no small or unusual or unpleasant volume. To this we would have added the Morals and Rhetorics of Cicero, and the Institutions of Quintilian; and for the comedians, from whom almost all that necessary part of common discourse and all the most intimate proprieties of the language are drawn, we conceive the boys made be made masters of them, as a part of their recreation and not of their task, if once a month, or at least once in two, they act one of Terence's comedies, and afterwards (the most advanced) some of Plautus'; and this is for many reasons one of the best exercises they can be enjoined, and most innocent pleasures they can be allowed. As for the Greek authors, they may study Nicander, Oppianus, (whom Scaliger does not doubt to prefer above Homer loimself, and place next to his adored Virgil) Aris. totle's llistory of Animals, and other parts; Theophrastus and Dioscorides, of Plants, and a collection made out of several, both poets and other Grecian writers. For morals and rhetoric, Aristotle may suffice, or Hermogenes and Loriginus be added for the latter. With the history of animals they should be showed anatomy as a divertisement, and made to know the figures and natures of those creatures which are not common among us, disabusing them at the same time of those errors which are universally admitted concerning many. The samo method should be used to make them acquainted with all plants; and to this must be added a little of the ancient and modern geography, the understanding of the globes, and the principles of geometry and astronomy. They should likewise use to declaim in Latin and English, as the Romans did in Greek and Latin ; and in all this travel be rather led on by familiarity, encouragement and emulation, than driven by severity, punishment and terror. Upon festivals and playtimes they should exercise themselves in the fields by riding, leaping, fencing, mustering and training after the manner of soldiers, &c. And to prevent all dangers and all disorder, there should always be two of the scholars with them to be as witnesses and directors of their actions. In foul weather it would not be amiss for them to learn to dance, that is, to learn just so much (for all beyond is superfluous, if not worse,) as may give them a graceful comportment of their bodies.
Upon Sundays, and all days of devotion, they are to be a part of the chaplain's province.
That for all these ends the College so order it, as that there may be some convenient and pleasant houses thereabouts, kept by religious, discreet, and careful persons, for the lodging and boarding of young scholars, that they have a constant eye over them to see that they be bred up there piously, cleanly, and plentifully, according to the proportion of their parents' expenses.
And that the College, when it shall please God either by their own industry and suceess, or by the benevolence of patrons, to enrich them so far as that it may come to their turn and duty to be charitable to others, shall at their own charges erect and maintain some house or houses for the entertainment of such poor men's sons whose good natural parts may promise either use or ornament to the commonwealth, during the time of their abode at school, and shall take care that it shall be done with the same conveniences as are enjoyed even by rich men's children, (though they maintain the fewer for that cause,) there being nothing eminent and illustrious to be expected from a low, sordid, and hospital. like education.
If I be not much abused by a natural fondness to my own conceptions, (that sopy of the Greeks, which no other language has a proper word for,) there was never any project thought upon, which deserves to meet with so few adversaries as this; for who can without impudent folly oppose the establishment of twenty well selected persons in such a condition of life, that their whole business and sole profession may be to study the improvement and advantage of all other professions, from that of the highest general even to the lowest artisan ? Who shall be obliged to employ their whole time, wit, learning, and industry, to these four, the most useful that can be imagined, and to no other ends: First, to weigh, examine, and prove all things of nature delivered to us by former ages, to detect, explode, and strike a censure through all false moneys with which the world has been paid and cheated so long, and (as I may say) to set the mark of the College upon all true coins, that they may pass hereafter without any farther trial. Secondly, to recover the lost inventions, and, as it were, drowned lands of the ancients. Thirdly, to improve all arts which we now have; and lastly, discover others, which we yet have not. And who shall besides all this (as a benefit by-the-by) give the best education in the world (purely gratis) to as many men's children as shall think fit to make use of the ob. ligation. Neither does it at all check or interfere with any parties in state or religion, but is indifferently to be embraced by all differences in opinion, and can hardly be conceived capable (as many good institutions have done) even of degeneration into any thing harmful. So that, all things considered, I will suppose this proposition will encounter with no enemies; the only question is, whether it will find friends enough to carry it on from discourse and design to reality and effect; the necessary expenses of the beginning (for it will maintain itself well enough afterwards) being so great (though I have set them as low as is possible in order to so vast a work) that it may seem hopeless to raise such sum out of those few dead relics of human charity and public generosity which are yet remaining in the world.
EXTRACTS FROM AN ESSAY ON AGRICULTURE, BY A. COWLEY. There is no other sort of life that affords so many branches of praise to a panegyrist—the utility of it to a man's self: the usefulness or rather necessity of it to all the rest of mankind: the innocence, the pleasure, the antiquity, the dignity. The utility (I mean plainly the lucre of it) is not so great now in our nation as arises from merchandise and the trading of the city, from whence many of the best estates and chief honors of the kingdom are derived: we have no men now fetched from the plow to be made lords, as they were in Rome to be made consuls and dictators, the reason of which I conceive to be from an evil custom, now grown as strong among us as if it were a law, which is, that no men put their children to be bred up apprentices in agriculture, as in other trades, but such who are so poor, that when they come to be men, they have not wherewithal to set up in it, and so can only farm some small parcel of ground, the rent of which devours all but the bare subsistence of the tenant: whilst they who are proprietors of the land, are either tuo proud, or for want of that kind of education, too ignorant to improve their estates, though the means of doing it be as easy and certain this as in any other track of com
If there were always two or three thousand youths for seven or eight years bound to this profession, that they might learn the whole art of it, and afterwards be enabled to be masters in it, by a moderate stock, I can not doubt but that we should see as many aldermen's estates made in the country, as now we do out of all kind of merchandising in the city. There are as many ways to be rich, and which is better, there is no possibility to be poor, without such negligence as can neither have excuse nor pity; for a little ground will without question feed a little family, and the superfluities of life (which are now in some cases by custom made almost necessary) must be supplied out of the superabundance of art and industry, or contemned by as great a degree of philosophy.
As for the necessity of this art, it is evident enough, since this can live without all others, and no one other without this. This is like speech, without which the society of men can not be preserved: the others like figures and tropes of speech which serve only to adorn it. Many nations have lived, and some do still, without any art but this; not so elegantly, I confess, but still they live, and almost all the other arts which are here practiced, are beholding to this for most of their materials.
The innocence of this life is the next thing for which I commend it, and if husbandmen preserve not that, they are much to blame, for no men are so free from the temptations of iniquity. They live by what they can get by industry from the earth, and others by what they can catch by craft from men. They live upon an estate given them by their mother, and others upon an estate cheated from their brethren. They live like sheep and kine by the allowances of nature, and others like wolves and foxes by the acquisitions of rapine. And, I hope, I may affrm (without any offense to the great) that sheep and kine are very useful, and that wolves and foxes are pernicious creatures. They are, without dispute, of all men the most quiet and least apt to be inflamed to the disturbance of the commonwealth : their manner of life inclines them, and interest binds them to love peace. In our late mad and miserable civil wars, all other trades, even to the meanest, set forth whole troops, and raised up some great commanders, who became famous and mighty for the mischiefs they had done; but I do not remember the name of any one husbandman who had 80 considerable a share in the twenty years' ruin of his country, as to deserve the curses of his countrymen; and if great delights be joined with so much innocence, I think it is ill done of men not to take them here where they are so tame and ready at hand, rather than hunt for them in courts and cities where they are so wild, and the chase so troublesome and dangerous.
We are here among the vast and noble scenes of nature; we are there among the pitiful shifts of policy: we walk here in the light and open ways of the divine bounty; we grope there in the dark and confused labyrinths of human malice: our senses are here feasted with the clear and genuine taste of their objects; which are all sophisticated there, and for the most part overwhelmed with their contr.ries. Here pleasure looks (methinks) like a beautiful, constant, and modest wife; it is there an inipudent, fickle, and painted harlot. Here is harmless and cheap plenty, there guilty and expenseful luxury.
I shall only instance in one delight more, the most natural and best natured of all others, a perpetual companion of the husbandman, and that is the satisfaction of looking round about him, and seeing nothing but the effects and improvements of his own art and diligence, to be always gathering of some fruits of it, and at the same time to behold others ripening, and others budding: to see all his fields and gardens covered with the beauteous creatures of his own industry; and to see, like God, that all his works are good.
-Hino atque hinc glomer antur Orcades; ipsi
On his heart-string a secret joy does strike. The antiquity of his art is certainly not to be contested by any other. The three first men in the world were a gardener, a plougliman, and a grazier; and if any man object that the second of these was a murtherer, I desire he would consider, that as soon as he was so, he quitted our profession and turned builder. It is for this reason, I suppose, that Ecclesiasticus forbids us to hate husbandry; hecause (says he) the Most High has created it. We were all born to this art, and taught by nature to nourish our bodies by the same earth out of which they were made, and to which they must return, and pay at last for their sustenance.
Behold the original and primitive nobility of all those great persons, who are too proud now, not only to till the ground, but almost to tread upon it. We may talk what we please of lilies, and lions rampant, and spread eagles in fields d'or, or d'argent; but if heraldry were guided by reason, a plough in a field arable would be the most noble and ancient arms.
All these considerations make me fall into the wonder and complaint of Columella. How it should come to pass that all arts or sciences, (for the dispute, which is an art, and which a science, does not belong to the curiosity of us husbandmen,) metaphysics. physic, morality, mathematics, logic, rhetoric, &c., which are all, I grant, good and useful faculties, (except only metaphysics, which I do not know whether it be any thing or no,) but even vaulting, fencing, dancing, attiring, cookery, carving, and such like vanities, should all have public schools and masters, and yet that we should never see or hear of any man who took upon him the profession of teaching this so pleasant, so virtuous, so profitable, so honorable, so necessary, art.
A man would think, when he's in serious humor, that it were but a vain,