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matter are voluntary, and at leisure. Physiological learning is of such rare emergency that one may know another half his life, without 'being able to estimate his skill in hydrostatics or astronomy; but, his moral and prudential character immediately appears.
Those authors, therefore, are to be read at schools that supply most axioms of prudence, most principles of moral truth, and most materials for conversation ; and, these purposes are best served by poets, orators, and historians.
Let me not be censured for this digression, as pedantic or paradoxical; for, if I have Milton against me, I have Socrates on my side. It was his labor to turn philosophy from the study of nature to speculations upon life; but, the innovators whom I oppose are turning off attention from life to nature. They seem to think that we are placed here to watch the growth of plants, or the motions of the stars. Socrates was rather of opinion that what we had to learn was, how to do good, and avoid evil.
Οσιι σοι εν μεγαροισι κακον7’ αγαθονε σεσυκλαι. Of institutions, we may judge by their effects. From this wonderworking academy, I do not know that there ever proceeded any man very eminent for knowledge : its only genuine product, I believe, is a small history of poetry, written in Latin, by his nephew, Philips, of which, perhaps, none of my readers has ever heard.*
That in his school, as in every thing else which he undertook, he labored with great diligence, there is no reason for doubting! One part of his method deserves general imitation. He was careful to instruct his scholars in religiont. Every Sunday was spent upon thev ology; of which he dictated a short system, gathered from the writers that were then fashionable in the Dutch universities.
He set his pupils an example of hard study and spare diet; only now and then he allowed himself to pass a day of festivity and indulgence with some gay gentlemen of Gray's Inn."
To these disparaging remarks we add a few sensible comments, by Rev. John Mitford, in his elegantly written life, prefixed to Pickering's Aldine edition of Milton's Poetical Works.
"The system of education which he adopted was deep and comprehensive; it promised to teach science with language, or rather, to make the study of languages subservient to the acquisition of scien tific knowledge. Dr. Johnson has severely censured this method instruction, but with arguments that might not unsuccessfully be met.
* We may be sure, at least, that Dr. Johnson had never seen the book he speaks of; for it is entirely composed in English, though its title begins with two Latin words, " Thentrum Poetarum; or, a complete Collection of the Poets, &c.," a circumstance that probably misled Ne biographer of Milton.
The plan recommended by the authority of Milton seems to be chiefly liable to objection, from being too extensive; and, while it makes authors of all ages contribute to the development of science, it, of course, must reject that careful selection, which can alone secure the cultivation of the taste. We may also reply to Johnson that, although all men are not designed to be astronomers, or geometricians, a knowledge of the principles on which the sciences are built, and the reasonings by which they are conducted, not only forms the most exact discipline which the mind can undergo, giving to it comprehension and vigor; but, is the only solid basis on which an investigation of the laws of nature can be conducted, or those arts improved that tend to the advantage of society, and the happiness of mankind.
Johnson says, we are not placed here to watch the planets, or the motion of the stars, but to do good. But, good is done in various ways, according to opportunities offered, and abilities conferred; a man whose natural disposition, or the circumstances of whose education lead to pursue astronomical discoveries, or the sublime speculations of geometry, is emphatically doing good to others, as he is extending the boundaries of knowledge, and to himself, as he is directing the energies of his mind to subjects of the most exalted contemplation."
Having, in the foregoing extract from Dr. Johnson, introduced an ungenerous fling of that great, but prejudiced writer against the patriotism of John Milton, because, in the absence of any
opportunity of being equally useful to the cause in which his heart was enlisted, and until he was summoned by the parliament of England and its great Protector, " to address the whole collective body of people, cities, states, and councils of the wise and eminent, through the wide expanse of anxious and listening Europe," he saw fit to employ his great abilities in illustrating, by pen and example, the true principles and method of a generous and thorough education, “the only genuine source of political and individual liberty,--the only true safeguard of states," and to defend the cause of civil and religious freedom by his publications,—we will let the great champion of the commonwealth of England speak for himself, and refresh the patriotism of our own times by a few of his burning words, uttered over two hundred years ago in his “Defensio Secunda pro Populo Anglicano."
“ But against this dark array of long received opinions, superstitions, obloquy, and fears, which some dread even more than the enemy himself, the English had to contend; and all this under the light of better information, and favored by an impulse from abuve, they overcame with such singular enthusiasm and bravery, that, great as were the numbers engaged in the contest, the grandeur of conception and lostiness of spirit which were universally displayed, merited for each individual more than a mediocrity of farne ; and Britain, which was formerly styled the hot bed of tyranny, will hereafter deserve to be celebrated for endless ages, as a soil most genial to the growth of liberty. During the mighty struggle, no anarchy, no licentiousness was seen ; no illusions of glory, no extravagant emulation of the ancients inflamed them with a thirst for ideal liberty ; but the rectitude of their lives, and the sobriety of their habits, taught them the only true and safe road to real liberty, and they took up arms only to defend the sanctity of the laws and the rights of conscience.
Relying on the divine assistance, they used every honorable exertion to break the yoke of slavery.; of the praise of which, though I claim no share to myself, yet I can easily repel any charge which may be adduced against me, either of want of courage or want of zeal. For though I did not participate in the toils or dangers of the war, yet I was at the same time engaged in a service not less hazardous to myself, and more beneficial to my fellow citizens, nor, in the adverse turns of our affairs, did I ever betray any symptoms of pusilanimity and dejection, or show myself more afraid than became me of malice or of death; for since from my youth I was devoted to the pursuits of literature, and my mind had always been stronger than my body, I did not court the labors of a camp, in which any common person would have been of more service than myself, but resorted to that employment in which my exertions were likely to be of most avail, Thus, with the better part of my frame I contributed as much as possible to the good of my country, and to the success of the glorious cause in which we were engaged ; and I thought if God willed the success of such glorious achievements, it was equally agreeable to his will that there should be others by whom those achievements should be recorded with dignity and elegance; and that the truth which had been defended by arms, should also be defended by reason, which is the best and only legitimate means of defending it. Hence, while I applaud those who were victorious in the field, I will not complain of the province which was assigned me, but rather congratulate myself upon it and thank the Author of all good for having placed me in a station which may be an object of envy to others rather than of regret to myself.
I am far from wishing to make any vain or arrogant comparisons, or to speak ostentatiously of myself; but, in a cause so great and glorious, and particularly on an occasion when I am called by the general suffrage to defend the very defenders of that cause, I can hardly refrain from assuming a more lofty.and swelling tone than the simplicity of an exordium may seem to justify: and as much as I may be surpassed in the powers of eloquence and copiousness of diction, by the illustrious orators of antiquity, yet the subject of which I treat was never surpassed in any age, in dignity or in interest. It has excited such general and such ardent expectation, that I imagine myself not in the forum or on the rostra, surrounded only by the people of Athens or of Rome, but about to address in this as in my former defence, the whole collective body of people, cities, states, and councils of the wise and eminent, through the wide expanse of anxious and listening Europe. I seem to survey, as from a towering height, the far extended tracts of sea and land, and innumerable crowds of spectators, betraying in their looks the liveliest, and sensations the most congenial with my own. Here I behold the stout and manly prowess of the Gernian, disdaining servitude ; there the generous and lively impetuosity of the French ; on this side, the calm and stately valor of the Spaniard ; on that, the composed and wary magnanimity of the Italian. Of all the lovers of liberty and virtue, the magnanimous and the wise, in whatever quarter they may be found, some secretly favor, othesr openly approve ; some greet me with congratulation and applause ; .others who had long been proof against conviction, at last yield themselves captive to the force of truth. Surrounded by congregated multitudes, I now imagine that, from the columns of Hercules to the Indian Ocean, I behold the nations of the earth recovering that liberty which they so long had lost; and that the people of this island are transporting to other countries a plant of more beneficial qualities, and more noble growth than that which Triptolemus is reported to have carried from region to region; that they are disseminating the blessings of civilization and freedom among cities, kingdoms, and nations."
PROPOSITIONS FOR ERECTING A COLLEGE OF HUSBANDRY.
MASTER SAMUEL Hartlib, the friend of Milton and co-laborer with him and Petty, and Cowley, in endeavors to promote learning and the public good in their day, thus introduces "An Essay for advancement of Husbandry-Learning : or Propositions for the erecting a college of Husbandry: and in order thereunto, for the taking in of Pupills or apprentices; and also Friends or Fellows of the same COLLEDGE or Society."
TO THE READER. COURTEOUS READER, -I find by experience, that it is nothing but the narrownes of our spirits that makes us miserable; for if our hearts were enlarged beyond ourselves, and opened to lay hold of the advantages which God doth offer, whereby we may become joyntly serviceable unto one another in publicke Concernments; we could not be without Lucriferous employments for ourselves; nor unfruitfull to our neighbors, as now for the most part we are, only because we mind not the objects of that Industriousness, which without a mutuall concurrance can not be advanced. For mine owne part, although I can contribute but little; yet being carried forth to watch for the opportunities of provoking others, who can do more, to improve their talents, I have found experimentally that my endeavors have not been without effect as to their undertaking; for God hath brought beyond what I could imagine unto my hand from time to time, Objects of Service, answerable to the enlargement of my spirit: So that I must conclude, that it is nothing but the narrownesse of all mens spirits that makes their miseries to lye heavily upon them : for there are infinite meanes of reliefe and comfort, for all sorts of Calamities to be found in Nature, and well ordered Societies, if men were not enviously, or covetously, or peevishly, or ambitiously, or ily Straitened within themselves, in the use of that which God hath given them to serve the Glory of his goodness withall; towards the reliefe of themselves and others. And to waken such as are upright in heart, but yet lazie and drowsie under their Distractions, I have thought good to offer these hints to the Publique, which have a long time lain by me; that in this Hopefull appearance of Your settlement, those that droope might see a possibility (if they will not be wanting to themselves) to make themselves and others in this Nation, and juncture of time, more happie and plentifull in outward Professions than their Forefathers have been; by a Colledge or Corporation of Husbandry. For if in all other trades and Sciences, Colledges and Corporations have been and are exceedingly advantagious (if rightly ordered) for the provement of the talents of those that betako themselves thereunto; Why may we not conclude that in the Science and Trade of Husbandry, which is the mother of all other trades and Scientificall Industries, a collegiall way of Teaching the Art thereof will be of infinite usefulness? I shall leave the thing to thy rationall concideration, that if the least part of Indus
• In this and the following paper we shall follow the orthography of the original. -Ed.
trie is highly improved by Collegiall institution and Education, how much more may the chief part and as it were the very root of all Wealth, be advanced to perfection by this means ? This Essay therefore is but an Overture, and a hint of this matter, that it may be further in due time ripened, and with more mature considerations brought to perfection, for the good of the Common-wealth, and the relief of the poor therein, which is the very earnest desire of
Thine and the Publiques Faithful Servant, (1651)
PROPOSITIONS FOR ADVANCEMENT OF HUSBANDRY-LEARNING.
In humane affairs, and which relate not immediately unto God; nothing doth more tend unto the wel-being of a Nation (God giving his blessing thereunto in an humble and right use of it) than plenty of food and raiment, and of all other merchantable commodities to send abroad; which will not faile to returne the prosperity and happinesse of other nations again in exchange. And surely & Nation thus blessed can want no earthly comfort; but will doubtlesse be hated of some, feared of others, and sought to of all. But neither the one, nor the other of these are any other, then the fruits of or in the Earth: and those are not to be obtained but by the helpe of Ingenuity and Industry. The first wisely teaching, what is to be done; the second acting according to those good and right instructions diligently and carefully. By these two (instrumentally) we enjoy all outward things; and without them nothing. These are the first movers to all trades and professions under Heaven; and particularly, to that most auncient, most noble, and most necessary trade of all others, (viz.) good Husbandry, consisting of abundance of parts, of which these are some.
1. Tillage, or Setting, or Sowing of several sorts of corne and graine, for the reliefe and sustenance of Man and Beast.
2. The Breeding of Cattell, (in which the breeding of Sheepe may seem particular.)
3. The feeding of Cattle.
12. The breeding, preserving or taking of wilde Fowle, particularly of Duckes in and by a decoy.
13. The Making and Managing of Rivers, Moats, Ponds, &c., for the preserve ing and taking fish of all sorts for the use and sustenance of Man.
14. The planting of Woad, and all outlandish rare or extraordinary Roots, fruits or plants.
15. The dreining, fencing, mowing, and making of grasse in meadowes into Hey.
16. The Making of Malt.
17. And (that now. so exceeding necessary endeavor) the planting all sorts of Wood for timber or fire.
Besides, very many others which I forbeare to name, as either not so easily