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the mighty Diocletian "for having extinguished the name of Christians who brought the Republic to ruin."
A second pillar commemorates the reign of Diocletian, and honors the imperator "for having everywhere abolished the superstition of Christ, for having extended the worship of the gods."
A medal struck in honor of Diocletian bears the inscription, "The name of Christian being extinguished."
To the fallacy of these assumptions subsequent events testify.
The tenth is the last general persecution of the Church as a whole by heathen opponents. A stupendous change, amounting to a revolution, now appears in the affairs of the Church. Constantine, known in history as Constantine the Great, became emperor of Rome A. D. 306, and reigned 31 years. Early in his reign he espoused the hitherto unpopular cause of the Christians, and took the Church under official protection. A legend gained currency that the emperor's conversion was due to a supernatural manifestation, whereby he saw a luminous cross appear in the heavens with the inscription, "By this sign, conquer." The genuineness of this alleged manifestation is doubtful, and the evidence of history is against it. The incident is here mentioned to show the means devised to make Christianity popular at the time. It is probable that Constantine's so-called conversion was rather a policy move than a sincere acceptance of the truths of Christianity. The emperor himself remained catechumen, that is, an unbaptized believer, until shortly before his death, when he became a member by baptism.
But, whatever his motives may have been, he made Christianity the religion of state, issuing an official
decree to this effect in 313. "He made the cross the royal standard; and the Roman legions now for the first time marched beneath the emblem of Christianity" (Myers).
Immediately following the change there was great competition for church office; a bishop was more highly esteemed than a general. The emperor himself was the real head of the Church. It became unpopular and decidedly disadvantageous in a material sense to be known as a non-Christian. Pagan temples were transformed into churches, and heathen idols were demolished. We read that twelve thousand men and a proportionate number of women and children were baptized into the Church at Rome alone, within a single year.
Constantine removed the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium, which city he re-named after himself, Constantinople. This, the present capital of Turkey, became headquarters of the state church.
How empty and vain appears the Diocletian boast that Christianity was forever extinguished! Yet how different was the church under the patronage of Constantine from the Church as established by Christ and as built up by His apostles! The church had already become apostate as judged by the standard of its original constitution.
The adoption of the church by the state as effected by Constantine, brings us to the consideration of the internal causes of the great apostasy.
1. State what you know as to persecutions subsequent to the reign of Trajan, during the second century.
2. Discuss the persecutions waged by Decius: (a) time (b) duration, (c) effects. Cite Cyprian, bishop of
Carthage, as to the widespread apostasy produced by this persecution.
3. State what you know of the tenth and last great persecution of the Christian Church: (a) time of occurrence-in whose reign? ((b) duration; (c) effects.
4. What claim was made as to the Christian religion having been destroyed by Diocletian?
The Home Beautiful.
Before taking up the question of how to care for the sick we should like to say a few words on prevention of sickness and intelligent care of the well.
CARE OF THE SICK IN THE HOME.
5. In whose reign did Christianity become the religion of the state?
6. At what time did this great change occur?
7. Discuss the conversion of Constantine.
8. Cite facts as to the immediate results in the increase of church membership and the growth of popularity of the Church.
Attention should be given to time of serving as well as to careful preparation of meals. To insure a con
tinuance of health hearty meals should not be served too near together, for there is always more danger of eating too much than too little. Circumstances and preferences must govern each family, and ordinarily there should be two light meals and one heavy meal each day arranged to suit the circumstances and preferences of individual families. A moderately light breakfast, light luncheon, and the principal meal at six or thereabouts suits the convenience of many people. A light breakfast, hearty dinner in the middle of the day and a simple supper perhaps suits more. people in our rural communities. The English custom of eating four meals a day is deprecated as giving work to do. (It requires from four the digestive aparatus too much to seven hours to digest a meal in health). This is no worse, however, perhaps not so injurious as having fewer meals and overloading the stomach at each. When too much food is taken into the stomach the digestive fluids are powerless to act on the whole mass and the surplus decomposes and causes various intestinal disorders.
A word as to ventilation, sanitation, etc. in the home, as a preventive of disease.* It is impossible
to emphasize too strongly the importance of fresh air and sunshine in every room in every part of the house; thoroughly cleaning cupboards, closets, shelves, and all corners where dust can gather; disinfecting and cleaning all sinks, drains, cellars, barns, etc; shaking and airing all bedding daily; thoroughly drying all cooking utensils and dish-cloths, paying especial attention to those used in connection with the milk supply; and last but not least, look after the garbage and the flies.*
It seems with all we can do the sick are always with us, and while we do not presume to take the place of the physician we would like to submit for your consideration a few simple suggestions that may prove a help in time of need. First of all, as Latter-day Saints we know the consolation, help, and comfort that come from faith and administration. This is the most important of all.
There are many among us who pass for well people who are almost constantly ailing and very, very many of our ailments come from our ignorance or total disre
*Not very much can be said in so short a lesson on these subjects, but we should like to recommend occasionally a few good books, not to be taken as text books, or to study as assigned lessons, but to be read by all the family. And if they cannot be obtained in any other way have them in the association library and try to get as many people as possible to read them. The one we would recommend this month, a simply charming book on these subjects is The Healthful Farmhouse, by a Farmer's Wife. Price 60c.
Other helpful books or this course: First Lessons in Food and Diet, price 30c, postage 4c; The Art of Right Living, 50c, 4c postage; Home Sanitation, 25c.
These books can be had at the Deseret News Book Store and the Deseret Sunday School Union Book Store,
gard of the laws of health. There are no two people alike, and even with regular prescriptions, each one must learn for himself what suits
his particular case. If you notice that certain things that you eat disagree with you, it is the simplest thing in the world to omit those things from your diet; you will not even miss them if you will take the trouble to substitute some of the many other things that can take their place with good results, instead of thoughtlessly saying, “I know this is not good for me, I ought not to eat this, but I will take it this time," and then suffer the consequences. If we had sufficient will power to stick to the things we know agree with us and thus avoid the frequent ailments that finally result in permanent ill health.
Some people because of some intestinal derangement can not take fruit and by eliminating this from their diet for a time, and living perhaps on a milk diet entirely, they will be able to go back to their healthy fruit or mixed diet. Some people can not take milk, to others eggs or strawberries act as almost a poison. (These cases are rare, however, and perhaps are caused by some inherited tendency). Bread and milk is said to be a perfect food, but milk as a drink, especially with meals is not to be recommended. The milk forms in a mass of curd in the stomach which makes it difficult for the digestive fluids to act upon it. If it is used at all as a drink it should be sipped slowly and in small quantities. Pure water is the best thing to drink, and should be taken often during the day, between meals. You may notice that bread is hard for you to digest. Eat as little as possible, try leaving it out entirely for dinner when you have so many other things that you will scarcely miss
it. Do the same with pastry, salads, sweets, or any one thing that you have discovered for yourself is not good for you.
A few suggestions to those who must act as nurses in the home, and there are few women to whom this duty will not come sooner or later. The nurse should be self-reliant, resourceful, and self-denying, of cheerful temperament, kind and sympathetic, quiet, neat, and systematic, and she needs to have good health. It is seldom that all these qualities are found in a home nurse, but in cases of emergency the woman who possesses most of them is the one who will be called to take the responsibility and do the directing. The nurse, however, must consider her own health and endurance and take needed rest and sleep that she may the more efficiently care for her patient. The sick room should be the sunniest, airiest room in the house-according to the Italian proverb, "Where the sun does not enter the doctor does." There should be an air of brightness and cheerfulness, with absolute order and cleanliness, for what affects the spirits of a patient affects his health very materially, and it certainly assists in diminishing the natural depression of a sick person to see everything clean and in order in his room, fresh flowers, a bright fire when needed, the food appearing just at the right time, dainty and attractive. The patient should never be required, unless he prefers it, to ask for food or to suggest what is to be prepared, but it should come as a surprise, thus tempting the appetite of the sick person and inducing him to eat when he had previously felt almost a repugnance for food. It must be remembered, however, that in some cases-fevers for example-there is no necessity for taking food for
a certain time, and the injudicious urging of food by anxious friends. is injurious rather than beneficial.
Visitors must be dealt with "kindly but firmly," and no friend. should be offended if he is denied admittance to the sick room. If the patient is well enough to be entertained then pleasant company is a benefit. The nurse, or person in charge is the best judge of this. But all disturbing, exciting or unpleasant subjects should be avoided, neither the patient's trouble, the visitor's troubles, nor those of friends should be dwelt upon, and the visit should not be too long.
Many annoying noises can be avoided by a little care and forethought. Avoid wearing clothes that rustle or shoes that squeak; if coal is needed bring it in wrapped in paper and lay it on the fire, paper and all. (This will save soiling the hands as well.) Keep rocking chairs out of the room; use a wooden instead of a metallic poker to stir the fire with; avoid whispering in the sick-room or just outside the door -if the patient ought not to hear what is said do not speak at all, if necessary to speak to him a low tone of voice is never so annoying as a whisper.
Particular regard should be given to administering medicines exactly as prescribed and great care should be taken of dis.nfectants and everything of a poisonous nature. Throw away all medicines. that have lost their labels, as it is useless to save them, and mistakes in using them may result seriously.
Special attention should be given to the bed of a sick person, he must spend all his time there for awhile, and what are trifles to a well person assume wonderful proportions to the invalid. There should be no folds or creases in the patient's clothing nor in the bed be
neath him; a feather bed should never be used, cotton sheets are better than linen ones; the upper covering should be light and just enough for sufficient warmth; about three o'clock in the morning, when the vitality is at the lowest, a little extra covering, a hot water bottle or a cup of hot milk might be very acceptable. Be very careful to get all crumbs out of the bed after each meal. Avoid jarring the bed unnecessarily. The nurse's hands should. be warm, her touch light. She should be neat, clean, and attractive in appearance, and above all she should keep her patient clean. See that he has clean skin, clean clothes, clean bed, clean air, and a clean room.
We find that this subject could be extended almost indefinitely, but our space for this lesson is gone.
We trust, however, that from the suggestions in the lesson and from
the questions, many additional items. of interest may be brought out.
1. Give additional thoughts on the necessity of exercise, rest, sleep, bathing.
2. Give experiences with regard to faith and administration for the sick. 3. Ask questions on each leading topic as it is given in the lesson.
Having considered kindness, the thought follows that a kind girl will be clean. Teach the importance and value of clean thoughts in building character; of cleanliness in conversation and of person. Teach your girls that they are sacred to God, that He gave them their individuality, but they must develop their own character. Class teachers, you must understand that you have higher powers and should use them. In this way you help the girl to gradually unfold, hers, and awaken within her a desire to be something better. Appoint four girls to devote five minutes each day, for one'
Helpful Hints for Juniors.
CLEANLINESS AND NEATNESS.
week, to thought on one special subject. Let one think on neatness in the home; another on cleanliness of person; another on cleanliness of speech. On meeting night give each one three minutes to tell the result of this concentrated thought. Invite some of the mothers to attend; have the placard as on the previous Home night.
Patching or darning as illustrating neatness.
a. Of person. Why?
On the street.