Imatges de pÓgina
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be sent to Rome, to be referred to your tribunal. In the course of this business, informations pouring in, as is usual when they are encouraged, more cases occurred. An anonymous libel was exhibited, with a catalogue of names of persons, who yet declared, that they were not Christians then, nor ever had been; and they repeated after me an invocation of the gods and of your image, which, for this nurpose I had ordered to be brought with the images of the deities; they performed sacred rites with wine and frankincense, and execrated Christnone of which things I am told a real Christian can ever be compelled to do. On this account I dismissed them. Others named by an informer, first affirmed and then denied the charge of Christianity; declaring that they had been Christians, but had ceased to be so, some three years ago, others even longer, some even twenty years ago. All of them worshiped your image, and the statues of the gods, and also execrated Christ. And this was the account which they gave of the nature of the religion they had once professed, whether it deserves the name of crime or error-namely, that they were accustomed on a stated day to meet before daylight, and to repeat among themselves a hymn to Christ as a God, and to bind themselves by an oath, with an obligation of not committing any wickedness, but on the contrary, of abstaining from thefts, robberies and adulteries, also of not violating their promise or denying a pledge, after which it was their custom to separate, and to meet again at a promiscuous harmless meal, from which last practice they however desisted, after the publication of my edict, in which, agreeably to your orders, I forbade any societies of that sort. On which account I judged it the more necessary to inquire, by torture, from two females, who are said to be deaconesses, what is the real truth. But nothing could I collect except a depraved and excessive superstition. Deferring therefore any further investigation, I determined to consult you. For the number of culprits is so great as to call for serious consultation. Many persons are informed against, of every age and of both sexes; and more still will be in the same situation. The contagion of the superstition hath spread not only through cities, but even villages and

the country. Not that I think it impossible to check and correct it. The success of my endeavors hitherto forbids such desponding thoughts: for the temples, once almost desolate, begin to be frequented, and the sacred solemnities, which had long been intermitted, are now attended afresh; and the sacrificial victims are now sold everywhere, which once could scarcely find a purchaser. Whence I conclude that many might be reclaimed were the hope of impunity, on repentance, absolutely confirmed."

Trajan to Pliny:

cases.

"You have done perfectly right, my dear Pliny, in the inquiry which you have made concerning Christians. For truly no one general rule can be laid down, which will apply itself to all These people must not be sought after-if they are brought before you and convicted let them be capitally punished, yet with this restriction, that if any one renounce Christianity, and evidence his sincerity by supplicating our gods, however suspected he may be for the past, he shall obtain pardon for the future, on his repentance. But anonymous libels in no case ought to be attended to: for the precedent would be of the worst sort, and perfectly incongruous to the maxims of my government."

Note. The quotations in this lesson may appear unduly numerous and lengthy. They have been incorporated, however, in view of the fact that had references alone been given few of the students for whom these lessons are prepared would have been able to read for themselves, as many of the books cited are scarce and generally inaccessible. As it is many instructive and important references have been omitted. The earnest student may read further with profit, and a number of very useful citations are found in Ruberts' "Outlines of Ecclesiastical History," in the notes at the end of sections 1 and 2, part II.)

LESSON REVIEW.

1. Define "church history" as distinguished from "secular history." What other terms are used to designate this difference?

2. Cite authority to show that per

secution of the Christians spread at an early date from Jerusalem to the outlying districts.

3. State what you know of the destruction of Jerusalem in the apostolic age: (a) Prophecies concerning the event; (b) by whom destroyed; (c) extent of the destruction; (d) show that the Christians suffered less than the non-Christian Jews from this dis

aster.

4. State what you know as to the persecution by order of Nero: (a) time of occurrence; (b) duration; (c) false accusations on which the persecution was based; (d) record of Tacitus as to

Discussion.

the extent and severity of the persecution.

5. What do you regard as the real cause of Roman opposition to the Christians?

"The reason a young man fears to marry is not because of the present cost of a house, but because he cannot estimate the future cost of running it."

6. Discuss the persecution in the reign of Domitian. (a) time; (b) immediate cause; (c) termination.

7. State what you know of the third persecution of the Christian church.

The Home Beautiful.

LESSON IV.

HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT-Continued.

"A woman's first duty is the care of her family." Should husband and wife both be wage earners?

What about wives who do all their own work and have a large family to look after? Homes where there are no children, and the wife is capable of earning a good salary? Wives whose husbands are on missions? Do you know any young women who are capable of earning a higher salary than young men?

8. What do you learn from the correspondence between Pliny and the emperor Trajan as to the condition of the Christian church in the early part of the second century?

are due to ignorance in expending as to lack in providing.

Which is more to be condemned, failure in the house-keeper, or failure in the provider? Care in consumptions as important as care in providing. Compare what comes into the house with what goes out. Some families live as well on fifty dollars a month as others do on a hundred.

Discussion.

There must be co-operation between husband and wife, they should have a common aim to work for, and each should be willing to make some sacrifices. Many things that are pleasant to have, where one has the money, can be easily dispensed with without detracting from one's comfort or pleasure.

It is an accepted theory that it is "man's place to earn, woman's to spend," but the expenditure is just as important as the earning. Preparation and practice in house keeping are just as important as preparation and ability to provide the means of running a house. Fully

as many failures in house-keeping fund, a "nest egg?"

What do you think about spend ing the full amount of the family income? Going into debt? What

Discussion

about a reserve

These would be very profitable subjects for our prospective housekeepers to study, and if taken up in the right way, would prove very interesting, as well.

The

Domestic science and home economy are made very attractive in many of our schools now, and to make them still more profitable they should be carried out in the home for the real practical part. girl should be allowed or required to take full charge of the domestic machinery, and should have the planning of the work and the spending of the house-keeping allowance. She will make mistakes, but the benefits gained by experience and responsibility will more than offset these. "One becomes expert only through practice."

Plan ahead for meals, both for economy and convenience, not only by the day but for several days, or even have your menus prepared for a week. Order your supplies in plenty of time to avoid disappointment in their delivery. Try always to select your supplies personally, and do not trust to tradesmen, or ordering by telephone. You should understand the different cuts of meat, which have the greatest food value, and how to cook different portions so that they will be nutritious and palatable. The tenderest meat does not always contain the greatest amount of nutriment.

To insure the spending of the proper proportion for each department of household expenses, a division of the income should be made, allowing a certain proportion for rent,-if the house is not

owned-for food, for clothing, for lighting and heating, for help, for recreation and amusements. (The higher life, ideals, etc., will be treated in a later lesson). The proportion allowed for each division depends a great deal on the locality, prices, tastes, ability to do your own work, whether you can supply part of the living from your own garden, keeping poultry, a cow, etc. Some would prefer to save in one Don't way and some in another. be afraid of saving small amounts, one cent saved on a ten cent article is 10 per cent which is considered by business men to be a very good investment. Care in small details counts for a great deal in the long

run.

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Helpful Hints for Juniors.

LESSON IV.

KINDNESS AND HELPFULNESS.

sons

In giving this topic near the holiday season, so many beautiful lescan be taught, and many thoughtful sentiments expressed. The young girl's mind is very receptive to the beautiful just now; so that the teacher has a broad open field before her, and much of the success of this meeting, as also the future usefulness of the girl, depends on the teacher's careful sowing. The reaping will come bye and bye. Two weeks before the date of meeting appoint four of your girls to take special part on the program.

Have one girl give a touching incident, very brief, of the Savior, in connection with this topic.

Another may give a memory gem of four to eight lines on kindness.

The third a short story of kindness to animals, showing the helpfulness of some dumb creatures, which should appeal to the tenderness and protection of the intelligent human being.

The fourth tell concisely what kindness and helpfulnes means to her in her home. The teacher

should prepare a placard with the motto, "Kindness and Helpfulness," written thereon. Place where all the girls can see it the Tuesday night preceding the meeting, so as to make an imprint on the mind. The sewing will be Christmas articles. Kindness.

It was Kate Douglas Wiggin who organized the first free kindergarten in the west. She was born in Philadelphia in 1857. Her youth was spent in Maine and Massachusetts. Later she studied the kindergarten system at Los Angeles,

a. To best friends.

(1) Who are they? Why? (2) How show love? (3) What can you do? b. To brother and sister.

(1) In what way? Why? c. To Mutual teacher.

(1) How at home?

(2) In what way in Mutual?

d. To strangers in public places. e. To animals.

(1) Their usefulness. (2) Intelligence. (3) Feeling.

Helpfulness.

a. In the home. Why? b. To the aged.

(1) At home.

(2) On the street. (3) In public places.

Literary Lesson.

LESSON IV.

JUNIOR: "A Bird's Christmas Carol."

and opened her school in San Francisco. A little later still, she organized a training school for teachers. In 1880 she was married to Mr. Wiggin, a lawyer, and they removed to New York. After Mr. Wiggin's death she became Mrs.

Riggs. She is a delightful writer for children. Her two best stories are the one given here and "The Story of Patsy," a dear little tale that grew directly out of her kindergarten experience.

"Since this is the Christmas even

SENIOR: "The Rivals" (Classic).

Richard Brinsley Sheridan was one of those lads whose mother found it very difficult to interest in common school studies. Yet he lived to be one of the most sparkling wits of his time. He worked hard on his plays, writing and rewriting until everything was beautifully clean cut and polished.

"The Rivals" tells how Captain Absolute' Sir Lucius O'Trigger, a fortune-hunting Irishman, always ready to fight any one and every one, and Bob Acres (a country gentleman, who, having been told. by a military man that the ancients swore by Jove, Bacchus, Venus, or whichever god suited the circumstances, adopts a habit of swearing on his own account), all seek the hand of Lydia Languish, a sentimental novel-reading young lady of great wealth. Lydia is under the guardianship of her aunt, Mrs. Malaprop, one of the most delightful comedy characters in literature. Mrs. Malaprop (whose name is a clever turn of the French mal a propos, because she gets her words. wrong) has set her cap for Sir Lucius and writes him letters letters signed "Delia," which she sends by her maid Lucy, a girl apt at playing two sides of a game when the game is lucrative; Sir Lucius thinks the letters are from Lydia, and on finding out his mistake, declines the honor of wedding the aunt.

Sir Anthony Absolute is a testy

ing, make it as entertaining as possible. Have one or more girls read the story, as you choose. (An easy way is to have four girls read, the first one taking chapters 1 and 2, the second 3 and 4, the third 5, the fourth 6 and 7). If "My Ain Countree" is procurable, have it sung. If not, sing some other Christmas song.

old gentleman who always loses his temper when crossed and blames it on to other people. He has selected Lydia for his son, but Captain Absolute, not knowing who the choice is, refuses to carry out his father's desires. Lydia, being romantic, will have no commonplace marriage. She intends to elope. She also re

ises to marry Captain Absolute, as she has fallen in love with the penniless Ensign Beverly, who, of course, is Captain Absolute. The young captain is forced by Lydia's sentimental foolishness to portray a character he is not in order to keep her love. Hence the mix-up forms the comedy.

The first Bob Acres was a Mr. Quick. But Joseph Jefferson has been so long associated with the character that he is generally looked upon as the one Bob. Acres is a great boaster. He talks big, but, as you see in the duel, he falls very short when it comes to action. He tries very hard to imitate men of fashion, and gets himself up as a rather loud swell. When he speaks of the ladies, he thinks he is copying the oaths of the ancients by saying, "Ods blushes and blooms." When he is talking of duelling, he says, "Ods triggers and flints." And so on. Other prominent characters. are Julia, a ward of Sir Anthony, in love with Faukland, who saved her life when a boat's upsetting threw her into the water, and

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