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Domestic Science.

Blanche Caine.

FRUIT.

Fruit is mainly water, but that is pure, and the solids are such as will aid in keeping the body in healthy

condition.

Perfect fruit is always best served in its natural condition, without cooking and without any addition. But fruit of the highest order is not always obtainable, nor is fresh fruit always most economical or digestible, hence other ways of serving it must be devised.

water that the mixture scorches, or so much that it would better pass for one of the German fruit soups; while sugar is used carelessly, and the compound is either unpalatably sour or sickishly sweet. When cooked with acid fruits, sugar loses much of its sweetening power; therefore, it is more economical to add it after the cooked fruit has cooled. But most fruits keep their shape better if cooked in a thick syrup. Watery fruits are improved by the addition of a little gelatin to thicken the juice after cooking. This is much to be preferred to an excess of sugar.

Washing Berries.

"Do

One writer says of berries: not ruin their flavor by washing them;" this may apply to those grown in our own gardens, but not to those which come from city markets. When we think of the many hands and the clouds of dust through which most fruit comes to us, the loss of a little flavor is the lesser evil. In washing berries they should not be left standing in a pan of warm water in a warm kitchen, nor be put in a colander and water poured through long enough for the sand on the top layer to be washed down through the whole Gently put a few at a time.

mass.

in a pan of cold water. Shake out the clusters of currants, or hull strawberries, rinsing each as lifted from the water, and the sand will be removed and settle to the bottom of the pan. Raspberries must be handled very carefully, but blueberries and gooseberies will bear quite severe

treat

ment.

Preparation.

In the preparation of fruits no utensils should be used that can discolor them or injure the flavor. Agate or graniteware, wooden or silver spoons and silver knives are best suited to this work. Too little care is given to the stewed fruits, and they are consequently disliked. Indefinite quantities of fruit, sugar, and water are put together in a pan which is placed on the stove and left until convenient to remove it. There may be so little

A tiny speck of salt may be used with good effect in most stewed fruits. Only the larger and most perfect fruits should be baked whole.

Berries and small fruits are usually stewed rather than baked, but an "afternoon oven" may be turned to good account in cooking them. The fruit is put in a syrup or with alternate layers of sugar, and is covered closely and left in the oven for several hours.

In gneeral, moderate, heat, more like the natural ripening process, is best for cooking fruits; shape and color are better preserved, and the natural flavor is not lost. Fruit juices, however, require little more than thorough scalding, provided they are afterward kept air-tight. When it is not convenient to cook fruit as soon as might seem desirable, the preserving qualities of sugar may be utilized and the fruit left covered with it for several hours or over night. Then a part of the juice may be drained oft and cooked by itself, if desired, for jelly. The remainder of the fruit will make an excellent jam.

It seems a pity to mash fine berries to get the juice for ice-cream, when so many are inferior in appearance, but are of good flavor, and would answer for juice alone. Often it is wiser to prepare two or more boxes at one time and select the best to serve whole, and use the smaller or imperfect ones for dishes in which the juice only is required.

OFFICERS' NOTES.

REPORT OF THE GENERAL
CONJOINT M. I. A. CONFER-

ENCE.
(Continued).

CONJOINT Y. L. & Y. M. M. I. A. MEETING.

Held at the Salt Lake Assembly Hall, June 5th, 1909, at 7:30 p. m.

Meeting was called to order, President Francis M. Lyman presiding.

Singing "High on the Mountain Top," congregation; led by Organist Mattie Read Evans, Assistant Organist Lizzie T. Sardoni at the organ. Prayer Elder Joseph F. Smith, Jr. Singing-"Earth with Her Ten

Thousand Flowers."

THE NECESSITY OF CO-OPERATION IN M. I.

WORK.

Adress by Elder George Q. Morris, former President Y. M. M. I. A. of Salt Lake Stake.

My brethren and sisters,-As I understand it, we are gathered together as a body of officers and workers in the Mutual Improvement cause, to discuss Mutual Improvement business. I presume that you are not expecting any sermon, so I shall go direct to the subject. At the outset, I desire you to pardon me if I make reference to my own stake-the Salt Lake-or anything that we have done there.

I believe it is the intention that we give our experiences and speak of the results we may have had in attempting to solve the problem of co-operation; and as I understand the subject, it deals particularly and specifically with the co-operation between the Young Men's and the Young Ladies' associations.

In the first place, in all my work in this cause, I have assumed that it is one organization-the Mutual Improvement Association-and that the Young Men's association is but one department of that work; that the Young Ladies' is another. Technically, this may not be true, but, in all general purposes, and in the working out of the various problems we have

to solve, this is the fact. We are here together tonight, in one meeting. We meet together throughout the year, at one time, and in one place; and if we assume that there are two organizations, we will fall into error and into difficulty. For instance, suppose that in the Young Men's associations there were two factions, and one faction disregarded the other faction; there could be no possible success in the work of that association; or, if in the Sabbath Schools, one department or group of departments attempted to operate in a way independent of the remainder of the Sunday School workers, there would be factions, disappointments, heartburnings; and there would be feelings entirely foreign to Sunday School work. I take it that it is precisely the same in Mutual Improvement. We must rest upon the fundamental principle that we are one organization; and, at the most, there are two departments-the Young Ladies and the Young Men. If we work upon this basis, and keep this principle in mind, we can not help but co-operate, because we are one, and we act and work and plan together.

On this principle, we find that the General Board of the Young Men make out plans for the Young Men's Association, and the Young Ladies' Board do the same for the Young Ladies'. These plans reach out through the stakes, into all the wards throughout the Church and the branches wherever there are associations. Now, if one acted independently of the other, if the Young Men's Board directed the Young Men to do certain things, away out in the wards, all over the Church, and the Young Men followed directly their instructions, when they are meeting at the same time, and in the same place, and under similar conditions as the Young Ladies, unless those plans formed by the two General Boards are in perfect harmony, there must come, away down at the other end of the work, a clash which would not be between the General Boards, because it is the working out of the plans that brings out the difficulty.

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It is there that plans might be made,
by one or the other, which are en-
tirely divergent and out of harmony
altogether. There would not result
any in harmony until they get to the
associations, and then there would be
a woeful lack of harmony and a lack
of good results. It is, therefore, of
prime importance that the General
Boards co-operate, so that in all the
details of the planning of the work,
one board shall be acquainted with
the work of the other; then there
shall be perfect harmony in the gen-
eral results when the instructions
reach the ward associations.

This, of course, is also true regard-
ing stake boards. There must be a
perfect co-operation between stake
boards, if there is to be harmony.
To be specific, I believe that the
boards in every stake ought to hold
at least monthly conjoint sessions,
the Young Men's Stake Board meet-
ing with the Young Ladies' Board.
I cannot conceive how associations
co-operate harmoniously unless
this is done. In all work of joint
character, undertaken by the associ-
ations of the stake, the plans should
be made and carried out by commit-
tees composed of members of both
boards.
I believe that there should

can

do.

I

always be consultation between the
boards.
I presume that the Young
Men, as a rule, get in the habit of
going it alone, in a way; they plan
things; they say, We will do this,
that, and the other; and they don't
Count on the fact that the Young
Ladies have just as much to say
about those things as the Young Men
Of course, a man is always very
important, in the presence of ladies,
Presume, and feels the weight of
his authority, but it is a mighty mean
man that exercises it wilfully. And
I
think the Young Ladies ought to
handle
a young man who does that,
in
some way or other-I do not
know how they can do it, but they
Ought to have it in for a young man
who takes the bit in his teeth and dis-
regards them. They will have to in-
vent some punishment of their own;
and I hope they will make it effect-
ive.

The same principle holds good with regard to the ward organization. There must be perfect co-operation, or there cannot be harmony or good results from the work. There must be conjoint meetings at which the

business of the association is planned, and there must be conjoint operation in the carrying out of these plans.

Now, to be more specific in regard to conferences: A conference in the Mutual Improvement association is just as much a matter for one association as another, and I believe the first thing to be done in arranging for conference is for the two boards-the Young Ladies and the Young Men-to meet and make their plans. There should be a conjoint board meeting. They should decide when that conference shall be, as to time, whenever there is lee-way for them to arrange the date. Having decided upon the date, they should decide upon the arrangements or the hall. By all means I should say that the Young Men might assume that responsibility of seeing that the hall is secured and properly arranged, that janitor service is carried out properly, and all other details that are necessary. It is absolutely essential that that be done, and I can not conceive of any plans being carried out except by consultation between the two boards; then there is perfect harmony; both feel well, and there is a good spirit.

In the Salt Lake Stake we have always made the practice to have our meetings of a conjoint character, in all cases, at least in the opening exercises. We have different studies, but we have conjoint opening exercises for our conference and for our officers' meetings. We meet together, and then separate. We arrange between the boards as to how the meeting shall be conducted; and if there is a little preliminary program, or if there are special numbers, the two boards appoint a committee from those bodies to arrange all those details; and we have had very good results in all that kind of work..

The same condition would apply to the conventions. When a notice is received by the Young Men respecting a convention to be held, they ought not to make any arrangements until they consult the Young Ladies; and vice versa; I do not believe the Young Ladies should go ahead without consultation. I am putting it in a negative way. I presume the Young Ladies are not accustomed to go ahead, but it is natural for the Young Men to do so. I suppose that is why they had a young man to treat this

'subject, so he could do a little scolding in good grace.

conven

Practically all I have said concerning conferences applies to tions. One very nice feature of cooperation in the Salt Lake Stake in several of the conventions has been that the young ladies have prepared excellent lunch for the young men. You will find all kinds of nice things resulting from co-operation with the young ladies. I can't for the life of me see why there should be any objection to it. I suppose there is not, and that the lack of co-operation arises from the fact that we do not stop to consult, and also from the fact that regular meetings of the two boards are not held. Now, I believe that this is of the greatest importance, not only to co-operate and be converted to the idea of co-operation, but to so arrange our meetings, and so carry out our work that there is a coordination of all the machinery of the two associations; and I want to repeat-and I want to emphasize the fact that you must have conjoint board meetings of the Young Ladies and the Young Men, I should say at least once a month.

Now in regard to travel-I believe that it is one of the most important features of co-operatoin. I think that you will all agree with me that it is not a proper thing, for the young ladies to travel at night and under difficult conditions alone. The young men ought to be careful to look after their comfort and interests in all the trips that are made in Mutual Improvement work. In Salt Lake Stake we endeavored to do that in this way: We had our regular conjoint board meetings each month, and at the beginning of the season we held frequent conjoint board meetings in planning the season's work. When it came to the visiting of aids, throughout the stake, we would meet together and district the stake not one without the other, but meet together and district the stake so that it would be convenient and proper for both organizations; then with the districts the same for the young men as the young ladies, we appointed two brethren and two sisters to each district. We endeavored to make those appointments so that it would be convenient for the young men to go with the young ladies on all those visits,

and they would consult respecting their appointments. The young men would get word to the voung ladies that they would be at a certain ward on a certain night; and they would meet there or go there together; and before they left they would decide as to where they should go the following week. In this way the young ladies were not without escorts and the whole plan worked out properly, in the natural course of events. Each month we reviewed the situation, and received reports on the month,-not specifically while in conjoint session, because the work is of a different character; but in their separate meeting the Young Men received specific reports and in the conjoint meeting there were general reports made ,so that we could correct any difficulties or make new plans for handling the work, or for visiting, that would be convenient for both the Young Ladies and the Young Men.

In regard to entertainment, there is a splendid opportunity for co-operation, a lack of which means failure, to any Mutual Improvement entertainments. There is one difficulty which should be overcome. I would suggest that the young men ought always to take the heavier end of all conjoint entertainments. There are some things that young ladies have to do, in the capacity of public officers, and in arranging and carrying on public business in connection with the Mutual Improvement association, that I believe the young men ought to relieve hem of, just as much as possible. If there is a piece of work to be done, that is difficult, or that is unpleasant, certainly the young men ought to step out and take that part of the work. I believe that is the kind of co-operation that we ought to practice, and that will be most pleasant and beneficial to all. We want this kind of co-operation, as well as cooperation in the preparing of lessons, to the extent that preliminary programs or conjoint lessons are prepared and carried out. If you are holding your monthly conjoint session, all these things receive attention as they need it, and to my mind, a conjoint board or officers' meeting, in the ward, is the key to the whole situation; because, Mutual Improvement business is conjoint business. The Young Men cannot go it alone, and the Young Ladies do not want to.

Some are not holding conjoint sessions, but if you will hold them you will find that a great deal of the business is conjoint, and you can take prompt action in disposing of the different questions; you can have joint committees at work; there is satisfaction on both sides, and things work out beautifully. A man is not much without a woman, and the Mutual Improvement work of the Young Men is not much without the work of the Young Ladies. For instance, in the working out of general plans, the Young Men meet and open their season at a different time from the Young Ladies, and they close at a different time. I am not here to dictate, in any sense, and do not wish to do so there may be weightier reasons why this should be so; but I should like to see the time when the Young Men and the Young Ladies associations open together and close together. I presume this question has been discussed a great deal, and it may be it is not possible at all; but I have found, in the Salt Lake stakes (I believe that all four stakes, during the last two or three years, have followed this plan) that by lengthening the season of the Young Men's, and stortening the Young Ladies' season, we have been able to operate together, and to open and close at the same time, and it certainly has been very beneficial and pleasing. For instance, there has always been difficulties, more or less, when the Young Men open their season. The directions given in the Manuals, and in the general instructions, were for the Young Men to open with a social. Well, the Young Ladies were in the midst of their work. The Young men, of course, assume that they must follow the instructions, and the result has always been, in my experience, that the Young Ladies' work for that night, and their plans and everything else, were just brushed aside. I think I recall when the Young Men were asked to have certain special Christmas programs that would necessitate the co-operation of the Young Ladies. Well, the Young Ladies had their regular work, and the Young Men went right ahead and took the evening, and carried out their plans. Of course, there was always more or less clash in that respect; so I believe that it would be a very important step in this great

problem of co-operation, if it is feasible, if we could open together and close together, and have special exercises together, and do everything together so far as it belongs to business of a conjoint character. We, necessarily, study different subjects, but our general aim and purpose is the same; and outside of the specific subjects, I believe that all the work of the Mutual Improvement associations should be co-operative, and should be planned by one committee, and by one body, one board, and made up of the two, so that one board knows all the plans of the other, and vice

versa.

My brethren and sisters, I believe that you cannot too seriously endeavor to carry out the co-operative idea, especially now that the priesthood work is becoming so thorough, and the tendency, perhaps, seems to be to have a little different character of work, and to have a little more of lighter work in the Mutual Improvement associations, and it is most essential that there be the closest cooperation. I believe if the young men in general will put into practice the principles of courtesy and consideration and gallantry, that the young men practice in private life, if they will do the same thing as officials and officers and members of Mutual Improvement associations, I believe that co-operation will become well nigh an established fact in all the associations. There is certainly a splendid opportunity for the young men to be courteous and considerate and careful. Certainly, no plan, no work, nothing that affects the Young Ladies should be undertaken by the Young Men without consultation with the Young Ladies. I believe that can be put down as a certain principle that never ought to be out of the minds of the young men. A president of the Young Men's association, whether he be a ward president or a stake president, has no business to plan for the Young Ladies. He must consult with them, and they will plan together. You will find that work which is planned by one and carried out by two organizations is never half so successful as work that is planned by two organizations and carried out by two organizations. Some way or other, we don't feel quite so much in earnest in carrying out other people's plans as we

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