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King governs through Secretaries
of State, 334; arbitrary, depends
on the character of the despot, 344 ;
local, in Austrian Empire, 344 ;
Joseph II. sets up one central, 345 ;
his thirteen, and their circles, 345 ;
Joseph II. and the constitution of
the Netherlands, 348; and the
use of force, 351; bankruptcy
brings States General in France,
356 ; by the General Assembly in

France, 366-369
Guiana: description of, 259; early

attempts at settlement, 260;
Sturm van Gravesande and the
negro revolt, 260, 261; labour
questions in, 263; Dutch colonies
ceded to British, 263

on

HANOVER: influence British

politics, 91, 92; British dislike for
the connection with, 93; George
I. and, 121, 125; the desire to be
rid of, 123, 127, 128 ; opinions on,
128, 147; at the opening of the
Seven Years' War, 141; and the

Treaty of Paris, 158, 163; the good
uses of, 180, 181
Holland: the Dutch gain independence

in the sixteenth century, 10; their
difficult position in the eighteenth
century, 13; our great rival for
Empire in the seventeenth century,
24, 56, 57, 106, 107; invasion of,
by Louis XIV., 26; the trade of,
55, 56; did carrying trade for
France, 63; monopoly of colonial
trade, 104; the only refuge for
liberty on the Continent, 124 ;
the decay of her trade, 131, 133,
136; Great Britain declares war
on, 311, 337, 338; her trade in
provisions with Ireland, 312; her
connection with Britain and Ger-
many, 336, 337; dispute with
Austria over navigation and trade,
338 ; William V. and the Rights of

Man, 338 ; Revolution in, 338
Hungary: Hungarians and Poles con-

trasted, 16; a homogeneous people,
16; Maria Theresa adopts the
Insurrection and its results, 125 ;
revolution in, 350 ; measures of
Joseph II., 349, 350, 351 ; measures
of Leopold, 351, 352

et seq.; competition with home
industries, 136-138; French take
Madras, 138; European possessions
in, 139; Clive at Arcot, 140; the
Black Hole of Calcutta, 145; the
Battle of Plassey, 146 ; in the Seven
Years' War, 145, 146, 149, 156, 157 ;
the condition of the army in, in
1769, and its great deeds, 267-270;
the civilian councils in, 269 ; Clive
and the inland trade, 270; the
financial and trade difficulties,
271-273; overrun with banditti,
273, and wild beasts, 278; Warren
Hastings and, 273 ; judicial reform
in, 274; the Bengal famine, 274
et seq.; land tax and taxation
during famine, 275, 277, 278, 279 ;
war in, 1778–83, 316; British seize

French and Dutch colonies in 337
Ireland : the effect of the persecution

of Catholics in, 28, 29, 202, 375;
after 1689, Willam III. and the
Treaty of Limerick, 39; the
promises of Charles I. and II. and
the northern Presbyterians, 39;
contrast with Scotland, 71 note ;
Wood's halfpence, 96 ; condition
of, under the two first Georges, 97 ;
the Charter Schools, 97; at the
opening of the Seven Years' War,
142; the Whigs and the govern-
ment of, 185 ; money drained off
to England, 185; Lecky on, 202 ;
graziers, Whiteboys and enclosure
in, 203-205 ; absenteeism in, 203;
value of imports, 205 ; famines in,
and restriction of trade, 205, 206 ;
emigration from, 206, 207 ; Presby-
terians recruit American rebels,
207; compared for taxation with
America, 229, 235, 240; in 1773,
no money in, 284 ; and the Naviga-
tion Laws, 289; attempts to
remove restraints on trade, 293 ;
trade with Holland for use of
French fleet, 312; Orangemen and
French Revolution, 375, 376;
political prisoners sent to Australia

as convicts, 379
Italy : the fortunes of, 13, 14 ; and

the war of the Austrian Succession,
124, 129

JAMES II. AND WILLIAM III. : naval

and military record of James, 24 ;
excluded from office, 24; William
III. appointed Stadtholder of
Holland; married daughter of

INDIA : advantages of the Dutch in,
136; Britain and France in, 136

CC

James II. ; his share in the murder aside, 174 ; abuse of, after 1688 in
of De Witt, 26; relations of James Britain, 181; enforcement of, the
with Louis XIV., 31, 32; James duty of government, 217; judicial
declined to join Louis in the in- reforms in India, 273, 274; the
vasion of the Palatinate, 32; trial of Lord George Gordon, 328 ;
reasons for success of William's Joseph II. reforms all Courts of,
invasion, 32, 33; William and the 345 ; obedience to, its effect on
Spanish succession, 34 ; in Ireland revolution, 364 ; common, the tie
and Flanders, 39; the evil influence between Great Britain and the
of William, 39, 40; his rewards United States, 376
to the Dutch, 44

Liberty: varies little with forms of

government, 1; Blackstone on, 3,
170; Montesquieu

on, 170;
King: the growth of his authority, Holland the only refuge for, on the

4, 8; strengthened by William 1. Continent, 124; use of, by the
on Salisbury Plain, 5; elective demagogues of the revolutions,
in Poland, 15; authority of, 169, 208 ; personal, under Whig
destroyed by Liberum Veto, 17; oligarchy, 181 ; fear of losing, leads
and nobles in France and England, to American Revolution, 220;
22, 23; conflict of, with nobles theories of, and American colonies,
in Sweden, 176, in France, 177, in 226, 243; and the common law,
Britain, 178, 182 ; personal govern- 296-299; the only means of
ment by, 177, 178; represents all, attaining, 358, 359; French ideas of,
179

367, 370, 371; and the Rights
of Man, 373; for trade rests on

power to bargain, 76; tendency
LAND: England suitable for agri- towards, 80; and the physiocrats,

culture, 6; the Polish noble and 83, 84 ; theories as to, 174
the, 19; the farm products of
France, 62–65; agriculture in
Scotland,

agriculture in MANUFACTURE: of woollen goods,
Ireland, 71 note, 203; enclosure England's chief source of wealth,
of land in England, 197–198 ; 59-61, 71; protected from com-
tenure in Scotland by clans, 201 ; petition, 59; smuggling of, 245,
yeomen migrate to towns, 198 ; 247; English cloth superior to
Írish, in pasturage ; great graziers French, 60; methods of weaving,
exempt from taxation, 203 ; sub- 60; of linen, 60, 61 ; smuggling of,
letting in Ireland by absentees, 203; 248 et seq.; of silk, pottery and
enclosures in Ireland, 203, 204 ; glass, paper, etc., 61; British
famine in Ireland, 206; tenure in inferior to French and Dutch, built
Spain, 332; Joseph II. remeasures up by refugees, 61, 62; of iron,
and reassesses land in Austrian inventions affecting, 61; timber
dominions, 349; conditions of, in necessary for, 61; of linen in
France in 1789, 359-361 ; tenure Scotland, 70, 71; of sewing thread at
in France, 361 ; effects of French Paisley, 70; bleaching of linen, 71 ;
Revolution on, 370; enclosures and the hand and frame knitter, 72 ; of
high farming in England, 374, 376 ; bats in America, 72; of iron in

enclosures in Scotland, 375 note America probibited, 72; intro-
Law: social duty expressed by, 3; duction of machinery, 197; the

collections of local custom, 5; use of steam for, 198; effect on
common, of England, 5, 6, 7 colonies, 199 ; Irish woollen,
Roman, Blackstone and Montes- destroyed by William III., 247;
quieu on, 6; in Scotland, 6, 69; linen and tariffs, 250 ; Indian
Roman, rests on absolute author- cotton, strangled by Company's
ity, common on popular consent, monopoly, 281, 282 ; growth of, in
6, 7, 8, 31, 176, 299; French codes America, 282, 377
of commerce, marine, and code Mob: used by Whig nobles against
noir, 27; criminal, in England, George III., 178, 187 ; examples of
46 et seq. ; liberty rests on, 170, difficulty of dealing with, 166, 187;
298, 299; French Revolution sets British riots, 231, 232 ; American

67 ;

riots, 230, 241 ; at funeral of partition of, 264 et seq.; final
Princess of Wales, 327; in Lord partitions of, 372

George Gdrdon riots, 325–328 Prisons: conditions of, in eighteenth
Monopoly: in trade, the French Com-

century, 46-54 ;

Lord Lough-
panies with, 21, 23, 24, 25 note ; borough on, 46–48; gaol fever,
in trade acknowledged rule, 53, 104, smallpox and starvation, 48, 49;
193, 194; the Dutch and, 56, 104 ; hardships of debtors, 49, 50;
wars over, 58; in woollen trade, difficulties of release, 48-50 ;
effects of, 59, 60, 61; Turgot makes cruelties practised, 52 ; liquor in,
the post a, in France, 76; patents 52; in Scotland, 52; in Ireland,
to corporations for trades abolished 53; in the hulks, 53; on the Con-
in 1624 in England, 104 ; a reason tinent, 54; reforms of, by Louis
for the ventures of Europeans XVI., 54
East and West, 172; conflict of Prussia: a fief of the Polish Empire,
theorists over, 173-175; the cause 16; given to William I., Elector
of the American War, 173, 194, of Brandenburg as pay for assist-
195, 244, 288; Colonial, 172, 193; ance in war, 16, 19; Frederick of,
accompanied by universal smugg- makes a revolution in the art of
ling, 193, 195 ; of trade by Jesuits war, 143; coalition against, in
in Martinique leads to the suppres- 1756, 145; conduct at partition
sion of the Order in France, 335 of Poland, 264, 266, 267 ; as neutral

carrier, 321,322 ; Gouverneur Morris

on, 370

56;

4;

NAVIGATION Acts: Dutch excluded by

our, from American commerce,
scope of, and opinions on, 108-111,
289, 290; and smuggling, 193,
et seq., 252, 253; attempt to
ep force, brings on American Revolu-
tion, 194; as applied to Ireland,

289
Neutrality : Frederick II. of Prussia

furnishes naval stores to the French
127; the rule of law at sea, and
British jurists on, 320-322; the
first armed neutrality, 320-324 ;

Great Britain's reply, 324
Netherlands: the fortunes of, 9, 10;

buffer between France and
Holland, 13; campaigns of Marl-
borough in, 36, 37; Joseph II.
desires exchange of, for Bavaria,
347 ; independence of, under
Austrian Empire, 348 ; Joseph II.
abolishes the Constitution, 349 ;
revolt against Austria, 347–350,
353; dealings of Leopold with,
351-353; Gouverneur Morris on,
370

a

RELIGION: moral sense, the only

avenue to progress of society, 1,
2; unifying influence of Papacy,

peoples on interchange of
territory accept that of ruler, 9;
Poles take Christianity from Rome,
16; toleration of, in Poland, 17;
the Greek and Roman Church in
Poland, 18; at accession of Louis
XIV. France protects German
Protestants, 21, 30; persecution
by Louis XIV., 28; Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, 26, 27, 28,
30, 64, 83; Doctrine of Divine
Right and autocracy of Roman
Church, 27, 28, 31, 121, 299;
efforts of Louis XIV. for an inde-
pendent Church, 28; effect of
persecution

of Huguenots
France, 28, 29; persecution of
Jansenists by Louis XIV., 29;

on

of Protestants in
Cevennes, 29; Stanhope's account
of an auto da in Minorca, 29;
persecution of Roman Catholics
in Ireland, 29, 39, 40, 202 ; Lecky
on the Presbyterian Church of
Scotland, 30; intolerance in the
Church of England, 30, 31; the
burning of witches, 30, 70; in
the British Army, 45; in the
prisons, 47; the prisons of the
inquisition, 54; Huguenots intro-
duce silk manufacture into England,
61; Huguenots and British trade,

persecution

POLAND: no strategic boundaries, 13;

an example of arrested growth, 15;
religion in, 16, 18; contrast with
Hungarians, 16; extension of
Empire, 16, 19; reform of, des-
troyed by Liberum Veto, 18, 19,
203, 204; the wars of, 19, 20;
Vienna saved by John Sobieski,
20; war of, succession, 95; first

202 ;

66 ; persecution of the Episcopal can, views of George III. on,
clergy in Scotland, 66, 67; William 293–295 ; of peasants in Bohemia
III. and the Church in Scotland, and Moravia, 344 ; in Netherlands,
66, 67; in England under the 348, 349; in Hungary, 350 ; the
Hanoverians, 91; repeal of the French, 354 ; the conditions attend-
Test Act vetoed by Walpole, 97 ; ing the French, 364
in the American colonies, 102, 237 ; Russia: an absolute monarchy, 13;
the varieties of sects, 103 ; Roman Anne succeeded by Elizabeth, 126;
Catholic, in Canada guaranteed Catherine and the Partition of
after Seven Years' War, 161; Poland, 264 ; invites Greece to
moral sense as affecting revolu- revolt, 265 ; Greece abandoned by,
tionary thought, 167; Presby- 266; and Turkey, war between,
terians in Northern Ireland and 265; free passage of Dardanelles
the land, 205 ; emigration of agreed on, 266
Presbyterians to America, 206, 207 ;
Polish laws about, 265; Jesuit
order dissolved by the Pope, 265; SCOTLAND : necessity for Union with
dispute between King and Parle- England, the difficulties, 66; the
ment over Bull Unigenitus, 334 ; expedition to Darien, 67; agri-
prosecution of Don Paolo Olavide, culture and famine in, 67 ; poverty
311; the Gordon Riots, 324-328; of, 66, 67, 68, 69; trade of, 68,
King George III. on laws against 69, 70; post office in, 68 ; revenues
Roman Catholics, 325 ; Catholics of, 68; newspapers and education
and Presbyterians in Ireland, 326 ; in, 69; ietains her own laws, 69;
Liberal measures of Charles III. subjects of trade in, 70, 71; suffer-
of Spain, 331; Jesuit order, 331, ings under the Union, 70; the
334, 335; Jesuits suppressed by Porteous riot, 97; the '45, 130;
Louis XV., 335; Jesuits suppressed the social change after the '45, the
by Maria Theresa, 343; religious effect on land tenure, 201; emigra-
difficulties in Austria, 343, 346; tion from, to America,
Joseph II. insists on his reforms in enclosures in, 202
Netherlands, 348 ; ecclesiastics in Sea and British Sea Power: the sea

the French Revolution, 368, 369 our native element, 40, 41, 43, 128 ;
Representation : for taxation, 212, turned from the sea by William

213, 218; by population, 216 ; in III., 40; Navy : summary of some
British Parliament, 219; the deeds by, 43; Gibraltar and
possibility of, for the Colonies, Minorca taken by, 43; recruiting

222; Governor Johnstone on, 291 for, 45, 46, 53; as prisoners of
Revolution: dangers of, 2, 3; how far war, 54; Dutch trade depressed

the result of human agency, 15; by, 57 ; under Byng, Lord Torring-
of the Fronde, 21, 22; English, of, ton in 1718, 94; at Carthagena,
1688, 30, 32, 33; the spirit of, 118-120; at opening of Seven
abroad, 166-168 ; French, Years' War, 141 ; blockades Ger-
enthroned force in the place of law, man rivers, 147; coastal raids by,
174 ;

fear of, favoured Whig 147, 148 ; reorganised by Anson,
supremacy after 1688, 181 ; in 148, 149; responsible for the fall
industry and trade, 197-199; in of Quebec, 153 ; saves the British
agriculture, 197, 198; effect on in 1760 at Quebec, 166; naval
Colonial monopoly, 199 ; leaders of power as it affects trade, 163; as
American, 207 et seq.; aristocrats means of protection for the
as leaders of, 208; effected by colonies, 217; in the American
small minority, 209; causes of War, 302-303;

proposal for
American, 209, 210, 216, 255 ; naval war, 305; war of 1778-83
French and American contrasted, becomes a naval war, 312, 313, 314 ;
171, 174, 175, 227, 233; general Rodney and Darby relieve Gibral-
unrest throughout Europe, 230; tar, 314, 319; Rodney's victories,
of 1688 and the Rights of Man, 258, 314; the battle of the Saints,
295, 296 ; revolt against Europeans Rodney dismissed by the Whigs,
in South America, 261; American, 315; the allied fleets in the
encouraged by Whigs, 292; Ameri- Channel in 1779, 315; allies cap-
Britain, between Great Britain
Slavery and Slave Trade: code noir and Portugal, 60; in Scotland, 61;

a

see

ture the British merchant fleets, victories over Spanish fleets at
316 ; Fisheries : Newfoundland, sea, 314; Spanish fleet in the
63, 65, 71 ; Scottish, 70; Mercan- Channel, 315; Charles III. and his
tile Marine : great losses in wars, reforms, 330; finances in colonies,
40; conditions of, in eighteenth 331 ; land tenure in, 332
century, 42; foundation of British Stamp Act : and George Grenville,
prosperity, 62, 71; ships of East 146, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230;
India Company, 43, 65; ships of Franklin on, 228, 229; George III.
Dutch and French Companies, on, 229; riots in connection with,
63–65; tonnage of British mer- 230, 232, 233
chant, 62, 109; Scottish shipping, Sweden: under Gustavus Adolphus
71; Voyages : Anson's round the and Charles XII., 13, 93; the
world, 111-113, 115, 116; of the political conditions under Gustavus
Wager, 113-115 ; Cook's in Austra- III., 175-177
lasian waters, 379; Wind : the most
potent sea power, 144, 152, 214 ;
navigation in West Indies con- TARIFFS: British trade grows up
trolled by trade- 214; effect of, on under protective, 55; by Danes
naval warfare, 313; and and French on our draperies, 56 ;
America, Navigation Acts, Smug- retaliatory, between France and
gling

in France, 27 ; in France, 63, 64 ; effects of, on smuggling and export
under the Assien to with Spain, 99 ; of raw material, 61 ; on Scottish
British and Dutch prominent in, and American goods to protect
106 ; French monopoly of, in San English trade, 72 ; against French
Domingo, 136; abolition of, 373; silk stockings, 72 ; French internal,
and cotton-growing in United 72, 73; in British Empire, 105 ;
States, 377

de Boislandry on, 105; and the
Smuggling: in the West Indies leads Physiocrates, 173, 174; a cause of

to War of Jenkins' Ear, 58, 59; the American War, 195; not
in France, 63, 65; increased under formerly disputed in America,
the Assiento, 99; affects accuracy 212, 240 ; Townshend's duties,
of trade returns, 105 ; counteracts 241; the growth of customs
monopoly of trade, 193–195, 244 ; duties, 245 ; in Spain under
immense, on the American coast Charles III., 331 ; in Austria,
brings revolution, 195, 212, 249, abolition of internal, 346; a cause
255, 256, 257, 338 ; increase of, in of the Civil War in America, 377,
Ireland, 206, 207, 247, 248; in 378
Europe, 245–250; and Colonial Taxation: in England and Scotland
trade, 251, 252; regulations to contrasted, 68 ; hardships of Scots
repress, 255, 256 ;

in Spanish under, 70; the struggle over, 76 ;
colonies, 289; chief cause in 1780 of internal property, 77 ; the Crown
of war with Holland, 337; Rodney and changing values, ship money,
seized St. Eustatius, 337, 338

77; land tax, to replace feudal
Spain : dynastic settlements of burdens, 78; necessity for new,
Empire, 9; succession and mar- leads to American War, 78; no,
riages of Philip V., 25; fear of without representation, 212, 213,
union with France, 27 ; proposals 217, 219, 290; kind of representa-
of partition of, 33–35; war of

tion for, 218; to pay for war, 223,
succession, 35, 36 ; local independ- 225, 226 ; of colonies' position as
ence and internal divisions, 36; to, 227, 243; Stamp Act, difficulty
storm and massacre at Barcelona, of enforcement, 228, 229; repeal of
38; disputes with British smugglers Stamp Act, 229, 230, and result,
58, 59, 289; the attack on Cartha- 232, 233; and Colonial Assemblies,
gena, 116-120; Pitt and, in 1762, 230, 236 ; in India, 275–279; in
159, 160 ; the colonies of the Sierra Spain, 331, 332; struggle over,
Morena, 310; treatment of Paolo between Louis XV, and the Parle-
Olavide, 311 ; joins France against ments, 335; the Cour des Aides in
Great Britain, 311; Rodney's France, 336 ; in Austria, 345, 346 ;

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