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dustry, aided by the quality of the pasturage, was set up by an army officer, John Macarthur. About the same time the wine trade began. Thus the staples of Australia, the present great outlet for our peoples, unless we intend to abandon it to the yellow races, resembled those of mediæval Britain. To these later was added the discovery of gold. New Zealand does not belong to the eighteenth century. It became early what Singapore was when Sir Stamford Raffles settled it, a refuge for all the outlaws of the sea, deserters, escaped convicts and criminals of all sorts. It was well into the second quarter of the nineteenth century before this beautiful land became an outpost of British civility and one of the most prosperous parts of our colonial Empire. Now our trade with New Zealand, six thousand miles from our shores, exceeds that with Belgium at our doors.

GENERAL INDEX

AMERICA : restlessness of, 107, 117 ; | Army: standing, replaces feudal

Navigation Acts and, 109, 110, 207; levies, 4; naval people's dread of,
deserters sent to service in, 117 ; 6, 220, 221, 226 ; misuse of, under
in War of Jenkins' ear, 118, 120; decayed feudalism, 9; British,
in Seven Years' War, 141, 149, 156 ; always auxiliaries in Europe, 40-
population of British, 199, 213, 215; 43; religion in, 45 ; hardships of
Virginia, 199, New England, 200, soldiers, 45, 46, 116, 117, 118-120;
Middle States, 200; quality of recruiting for, 46, 53, 300, 301, 311;
Colonists, 200, 201 ; emigrants to, treatment of, by civilian, 44, 45,
from Scotland, 201, 214 ; emigrants 116–118, 120, 142, 143, 158, 159 ;
to, from Ireland, 202, 206, 207 ; desertions and garrisons, 117;
Indians and other foes, 200, 213, political influence in, 117, 140 ;
214; transport in, 214-216 ; news- Scots unwilling to enter English,
papers in 216 ; economic causes of 68 ; foreigners in, 131 ; the Flan-
revolution, 106-108, 193–195, 288; ders school, 130, 131 ; engineers
leaders of revolution in, 208, 211; and artillery, 143; in India, 140,
friction with British officials, 209– 157, 268 ; in the West Indies, 143;
211; terrorism used in, 208, 211; difficulties of strategy, 144; in
no support for loyalists, 208, 211; combined coast raids, 147 ; new
the French in Canada, 213; methods in, 151, 153; appalling
geographical position of British in, waste of life in, 169; increase of,
213 et seq.; the war cry, 217 et seq.; after Seven Years' War, 225; in
fear of military despotism, 220, America, 234, 235, 301-310; Bene-
221; dispute over right of taxa- dict Arnold's march to Canada,
tion, 226–230, 238, 239; tarring 306; condition of Washington's,
and feathering, 233; forms of 307 ; Burgoyne's march to Sara-
Government in, 236, 237; amount toga, 308 ; act as police to put
of trade, 238, 253; behaviour in down riots, 327; Austrian, re-
Pontiac's war, 262; export of tea modelled by Joseph II., 347
to: the Boston outrages, 285; Assemblies and Councils: vogue of
reports from officials in, 287; views government by, decaying in eigh-
of George III, on, 293–295; the teenth century, ii; Diet of the
Rights of Man and New England, German Empire, 11, 12; declares
298;

Constitution founded on war on France, 32 ; the Polish Diet,
British Common Law, 299; pre- majority principle not admitted,
parations for

war, 301, 302; the Liberum Veto, 14, 17, 203,
difficulties of the British in, 302– 264, 265; represented wealth and
305; no great leader, 304, 306 ; noble birth, 17; forced to confirm
invasion of Canada by, 306 ; acts of Russia and Prussia, 265,
European allies 'of, 310 et seq.; 266 ; France; the Parlements, of
capture of Henry Lawrence, 337 ; Paris, exiled for opposing Law's
declaration of Independence, 358 ; system, 84 ; conflict in, between
revolution, effect of on European King and nobles, 177 ; take the
peoples, 371 ; legislatures after place of the States General, 333-
revolution, 376, 377; financial 334 ; the King and the, 333–336 ;
condition after revolution, 376; King governs through Secretaries
federal constitution, 377; tariffs of State, 334; Walpole on, 335 ;
the cause of difference between oppose reform in the revolution,
North and South, 377, 378 ; cotton 355 ; call of States General, 356 ;
and slave labour in, 377; growth the General Assembly, of the French
of population, 377, 378

Revolution, 366-368, 371, 372;
381

British Parliament, corruption of and Moravia, 344; revolt in Hun-
and reaction under George I. and gary and Galicia, 344 ; revolt in
II., 96, 186, 219; attempts in Netherlands, 347-350; Joseph's
1719 to limit the peerage, 96 ; war with Turkey, 348, 350 ; the
women and, 98, 99; the first prime measures of Leopold, 350, 351 ;
ministers, 177, 178; George III. Leopold's dealings with the Nether-
and, 179 et seq., 187; not repre- lands, 352; alliance with Prussia
sentative, 196, 218; representation against France, 372
in, for Colonies, 222; ignorant Authority: enlargement of areas of,
of Colonial conditions, 226; right 4; federal, needed to reconcile
of, to tax Colonies, 229; want of feudal customs, 6; first principles
men of ability in, 237, 238; in of, reviewed during the century,
1774, 286 ; opposition in, and the 55; revolt against, 166-168 ; revolt
American War, 300 ; Colonial against, coincides with industrial
Assemblies and the Stamp Act, 230 ; revolution, 169; revolt against,
grants and taxes by, 234, 235 ; effect of, on society, religion and
forms of, 236 ; and the mob, 241, science, 167-169; and trade, 171 ;
242; of Virginia and Massachu- shift of, from Lords to Commons,
setts, 258; refuse conciliatory

178; faced with revolutionary
offers, 301 ; Spain, Cortes abolished theories, 350, 351, 358, 359; effect
in 1713, King governed with Junta, on, of American revolution, 371
331; American Congress, 258, after
the revolution, 376, 377; Austria, BELGIUM : see Netherlands
great council set up in, 1758, 344; British Islands : people of, naval,
the thirteen

governments and 5, 34, 40, 41, 43, 378 ; cause of
circles of Joseph II., 345 ; Nether- variation from European societies,
lands, the Parliaments and Coun- 5, 6, 298 ; modify feudal usage, 8;
cils of, 348

European combinations against
Assiento: the, 24 note, 38, 58, 99 after Utrecht, 90, 91; growth of
Augsburg, League of: against France, Colonial trade, 55 et seq. ; under
27, 28, 30, War of, 33, 34, 59

the first two Georges, sacrificed to
Australasia : need of outlet for surplus Hanover, 91-93, 96; attempts at

population, 378 ; exploration and invasion of, 129; events in, at
settlement of, 379, 380; Cook's end of century, 373
voyages round, 379; coal and

sheep, 379; wine and gold, 380 CANADA : commercial monopoly in
Austria : and the German Empire, French, 135; bad financial con-

10-13; Ostend Co. set up by, 95 ; dition of French, 135, 152; war in,
Pragmatic Sanction, 95, 121, 122, in 1755, 144, 145; war in, in 1758-
124; War of Succession, 100, 121 9, 152, 153; the Quebec Act, how
et seq., 175; behaviour of France viewed by American colonists, 221
in War of Succession, 122, 124 ; Change: causes of, beyond human
appeals of Maria Theresa to guar- control, 14; effect of human
antors, 124, 125; wars and alli-

agency on, 15
ances of, Chap. V; and the Coal: use of in iron-manufacture, 61,
Partitions of Poland, 265, 266, 198; raised from mines by steam,
340 ; reforms of Joseph II, 265; 199; discovery of, in Australasia,
disputes with Holland, 338; the 379
triple regency, 339, policy of Maria Colonies: of Holland, 57; encouraged
Theresa, Joseph II. and Kaunitz, by the Stuarts, 58 ; monopoly of
339, 340, 341; Joseph II. and Spanish, 58 ; French, in America,
changed conditions, 339–341 ; rela- 64, 133, 136; Scottish,

on the
tions with Russia, Prussia and Isthmus of Darien, 67; and
Turkey, 340, 350 ; exemption of Empire, 100; early, of Latin
nobles from taxation, 341; Joseph people, 100; of northern peoples
and Louis XVI. contrasted, 341 and trading companies, 101, 106 ;
et seq.; religious difficulty and reproduce political forms and
reforms in Church, 343–344 ; change beliefs, 102; views of Europeans
from local government to Great on, 101, 103, 104, 107; and
Council, 344; revolt in Bohemia monopoly of trade, 103-108 ; value

in

95 ;

or

3;

of commerce with, 104 ; Child on EAST INDIA COMPANY: Dutch, 80,
colonial relations, 107, 108; British Austrian Ostend Co., 95 ; British,
attacks on Spanish, lll et seq.; Fleets of, 43, 65 ; its relations with
Colonial assemblies and home the State, blackmail for renewal of
government, 141, 142, 207, 216 ; Charter, 80; finances controlled by
Lord Strange on regulation of Parliament, 284, 285 ; military for
trade in, 194 ; British, have cheap protection of, 267, 268 ; relations
raw material, 197; ignorance of, with natives, 270, 282–285; the

British Parliament, 199; inland trade, 270, 271, 282;
nationality and population in finances of, 271–273; the reforms
British, 199 et seq. ; how recruited of Hastings, 280 ; goods traded in,
from Europe, 200, 201, 206, 207 ; 281 ; Clive's scheme for trade, 283;
prophecies of independence of, 213 ; export of tea from, 285
Union of 236

Empire : German, 10-13; French
Commerce : see Trade

colonial, 21-23, 133 et seq.; com-
Companies (see East India Company): parison of British with French, 23 ;

French, commercial, created by Dutch colonial, 23, 24; British in
Henri IVtre, 21 ; created by Colbert, the East, 136 et seq.; position of
23; failure of French, cause of, 24, British after Seven Years' War,
25; Child on monopoly of, 56 ; 225; the King the only tie between
des Indes, 85; South Sea, 86- the parts of, 240; in the East
90; Ostend, set up by Austria, founded by East India Co., 271 ;

African Guinea, 106 ; Austrian, and its dealings with its
Law's scheme for, 133; Colonial, parts, 338-352
136 et seq.

Equality modified by law: Blackstone
Corruption : Marlborough in 1710

on,

Lady Mary Wortley
accused of, 37; of civil officials, Montagu on, 166; Montesquieu
44; in Parliamentary life under defines, 170; Malouet's observa-
Whigs of George I. and II., 96 ; tions on, 170; Americans and, 171 ;
retards transfer of political power, increase of central authority tends
178; in Ireland, 142; at accession to, 328, 329; theory of, and the
of George III., 181, 185 ; sale of Rights of Man, 329
offices and boroughs, 186; George
Grenville's election bill, 186, 187 ;
in British elections, 219 ; purchase FEUDALISM: its system of living, 4;

of seats in French Parlements, 335 customs of, variety and collection
Crime : Horace Walpole on character of, 5; rested on military power, 6 ;

of police, 46, 47; savagery of how and why modified in British
criminal law, 47; persons not Islands ; decay of, 8, 14 ; privileges
criminals treated as such, 47, 48; of chiefs remain to nobles, 8, 78 ;
criminals sent to the colonies, 207 ; contrasted forms of decadence, 14 ;
and see Prisons

in Germany, 10-13; in Poland,
15–21 ; in France, 21; an obstacle

to reforming Kings, 176, 353 et seq.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS (French): Finance: a system of credit, met by

the absurdity of the Rights of Man, borrowing, 44 ; of the navy and
297

army, 44, 45; the national debt,
Declaration of Independence (Ameri- 44, 45; English credit good, 45 ;

can): the theory of the rights of how public, affects trade, 77;
man and the British Constitution, public revenue in England, 76, 77,
296, 297, 298; British politicians 78; public revenue in France, 78;
on, a present danger, 298; effect necessity for new taxation brings on
on the French Revolution, 357, American Revolution, 78; feudal
358, 370, 371

payments in England and France,
Duty: social, the essence of society ; 77, 78 ; borrowing from the gold-

contrasted with rights; expressed smiths, 78, 79; the beginnings of
by its laws; Blackstone and Hale banking, 79; the banks of England
on, 3, 4; and rights must corres- and Scotland, 79, 80; the influence
pond, 8; British colonists not of credit, 81, 82; credit grows
trained to, 207, 208 ; of a ruler, 217 owing to difficulty of transport,

81, 85; experiments in finance at 336, 351 et seq., 357, 365 ; fear and
opening of century, 81; the distrust and criticism, 354 ;
precious metals and export of Turgot's attempts at reform, 354,
bullion, 81; conflict between 355; Parlements oppose reform,
society and the individual, 81; 355 ; conditions leading to revolu-
land as security for credit, the tion, 359, 361, 364, 371 ; the
land bank, 82; Law's system in General Assembly, 366, 369 ; moral
France, 82-86; Law's Banque conditions at Revolution, 368, 369;
Royale, 84, 85; Law's Banque and massacres at Revolution, 373
the Compagnie des Indes, 85; the Freedom : see Liberty and Trade
South Sea Bubble, 86–90; the
Bank of England and the South Sea
Company, 86, 88, 89; Law's GIBRALTAR: taken by Rooke in 1704,
scheme and Louisiana, 133 et seq. ;

43;

rumour of exchange, 87;
finance and the effects of war, 224 troops from, refused to Byng, 144 ;
et seq. ; banks assist in European siege of, begins in 1779, 311;
crisis, 224 ; Great Britain provides relieved by Rodney, 314; account
capital for America and Ireland, of siege, 316-320; provisioned
248 ; effect of measures to regulate from Minorca and Morocco, 317,
trade on American, 257 ; of East 318; relieved by Darby, 319;
India Company, 271–273, 279, 280 ; Minorca falls, 319
Choiseul and French, 335, 336; 1 Gordon Riots: 324-328
condition of, in France, 356, 366 ; Government: indifference of form of,

American after Revolution, 376 1; English, rests on common law,
France : hatred of by German States, Continental, on Roman law, 6;

13; Colonial Empire and commerce George I. and II. described by
of Henry IV. and Colbert, 21; the Lady Mary, 92, 93; George I.,
revolution of the Fronde, 21, 22; Denmark and Sweden, 93; forms
finances of, 21, 83, 86, 335, 336, of, reproduced in Colonies, 102 ;
356, 366 ; prosperity of, under opinions of politicians on, 145, 146 ;
Colbert, 23, 26; he replaces nobles revolt against autocratic, 166 ;
by officials, 23 ; aggressive policy character of new rulers in latter half
of Louis XIV. brings about League of century, 167; autocratic, as
of Augsburg, 27; Palatinate first opposed to common law, 177 ;
devastation of, in 1674, 26, second George III. and the fictions of the
devastation in 1689, 32 ; fear of Whigs, 177; George III., our first
union of, with Spain under the constitutional King, 178, 190–193;
Bourbons, 27; Louis XIV. breaks his reign one of transition; 178; the
with the Protestants, 30, 31; use of the mob against George III.,
population of in 1687, 57, 58 ; 178, 187 ; King and people against
trade of 61 et seq.; destroyed by nobles, 179; ministers chosen by
war of Spanish Succession, 93, George III. non-party men, 179;
136-137; advantages of double his part in events a question of
seaboard; checked by British sea credibility of evidence, 179, 180 ;
power, 62; roads and corvée in, his education and character, 158,
74 ; and Lorraine, 121, 122, 124 ; 189 et seq.; he forbids gambling
plans invasions of the British at Court, 192; George III. and
islands, 129; presents an ultima- the American Revolution, 193;
tum to Portugal, 160; timber in, duties of, 217; weakness of
shortage of for shipbuilding, 162; colonial, 234; military and civil,
in Canada a check on British colon- in America, 234, 235; forms of
ists, 213; compared with Ameri- colonial, 236; fear of arbitrary, in
cans, 297 ; treatment of Lally de America, 239 ; personal, by George
Tollendal, 310; allies of the III., did not exist, 243; founded
Americans against Great Britain, on compromise, 291; want of
310-311; and the first armed police, 326, 327 ; new rulers favour
neutrality, 323; before the Revolu- reforms in, 330; of Spain under
tion, 332-336; collection of taxes Charles III., 331; by officials in
in, 336, 355, 361 et seq.; the France, 333; Louis XV. and the
hopeless position of Louis XVI., Parlements, 333-336; French

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