Modern Thermodynamics with Statistical Mechanics
Springer Science & Business Media, 14 de nov. 2008 - 402 pàgines
Thermodynamics is not the oldest of sciences. Mechanics can make that claim. Thermodynamicsisaproductofsomeofthegreatestscienti?cmindsofthe19thand 20th centuries. But it is suf?ciently established that most authors of new textbooks in thermodynamics ?nd it necessary to justify their writing of yet another textbook. I ?nd this an unnecessary exercise because of the centrality of thermodynamics as a science in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. I do acknowledge, however, that instruction in thermodynamics often leaves the student in a confused state. My attempt in this book is to present thermodynamics in as simple and as uni?ed a form as possible. As teachers we identify the failures of our own teachers and attempt to correct them. Although I personally acknowledge with a deep gratitude the appreciation for thermodynamics that I found as an undergraduate, I also realize that my teachers did not convey to me the sweeping grandeur of thermodynamics. Speci?cally the s- plicity and the power that James Clerk Maxwell found in the methods of Gibbs were not part of my undergraduate experience. Unfortunately some modern authors also seem to miss this central theme, choosing instead to introduce the thermodynamic potentials as only useful functions at various points in the development.
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Structure of the Potentials 85
The Third Law
Models of Matter 121
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activated complex adiabatic adiabatic process atoms Boltzmann caloric Carnot Carnot cycle chemical potential chemical reactions Clausius coefficient collisions component consider coordinates cycle defined density dependence differential electrons ensemble average enthalpy entropy change entropy production equilibrium Fermi Fermi gas fugacity fundamental surface gases Gibbs energy heat transfer Helmholtz energy high temperature ideal gas integral interactions internal energy irreversible isotherm Legendre transformation liquid magnetic mass mathematical Maxwell measurements microcanonical ensemble molar molecular molecules nonideal number of mols number of particles obtain partial derivatives partition function Pfaffian physical plot potential energy pressure quantum reactants relationship requires result Sackur-Tetrode equation second law Sect shown in Fig solution space specific heat statistical mechanics substance subsystems theorem theory thermal equation thermodynamic properties thermodynamic temperature third law tion vapor variables vibrational virial volume Waals fluid zero