Imatges de pÓgina

of the thing, simply because its root can be traced back through the Latin to a Sanskrit root which means to stretch. Müller is, as might be expected, perhaps, a worshipper of the Sanskrit. We believe that not only roots but words, and not only Sanskrit words but Greek and Latin and English words-words in all languages-are still, to a great extent, phonetic types of ideas; that it is not necessary to go back to the Sanskrit or the Gothic, as Müller does, in order to discover a reason for the significance of the ed in the word loved; that the class of letters, or rather of articulate sounds, to which d belongs, viz. the dentals, by reason of the very organ by which they are uttered, and the very process of utterance, naturally express an action finished, or brought to an end; and that, in like manner, all the several classses of articulate sounds, from the very nature of the sounds, or from some analogy in the organs and processes of utterance, are phonetic types naturally adapted to express certain classes of ideas. If we were disposed to turn against the author his own weapons of ridicule, we might call his theory the Ring theory, from his favorite illustration, or the Crust theory, so far does he carry his analogy between the origin and growth of language and the crust of the earth, with its primitive deposits, upheavals, subsidences, and abrasions.

We might also point out some apparent inconsistencies in the carrying out of his doctrines, in different lectures. But the book is a very interesting and very valuable contribution to a science, which, recent as it is, has already risen to a high place among the sciences, and is second to none of them in the light which it sheds on the great problems of anthropology and theology. We rejoice to see that the author is devout, reverential, believing. He avows his full belief in the common origin of mankind a belief which, he says, has been confirmed in his own mind, by Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species"; a belief which has been received by every nation that has any traditions on the origin of the race, and which finds new support at every stage in the progress of the science of language.

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THE neat little volume which bears the above title may be briefly characterized as a happy idea beautifully executed. The Hebrew text according to Hahn, with Rosenmüller's arrangement, in parallel clauses, occupies one column, and the English text of the Common Version another; the two standing side by side, so that, as far as the idioms of the two languages admit, the corresponding Hebrew and English clauses stand opposite to each other. In the few cases where the different order followed in the version makes such a parallelism impossible, it is indicated by braces enclosing the

1in Parallelism. Andover: Warren F. Draper. 1862.

The Book of Psalms, in Hebrew and English. Arranged

translation. As a specimen, we give the first six verses of the twentyseventh Psalm, with the English and Hebrew titles.

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Though an host should encamp 3 אִם־תַּהְיֶה עָלַי מַחְנֶה

לֹא־יִירָא לִבִּי


A Psalm of David.


THE LORD is my light and my sal-
vation; whom shall I fear?
The LORD is the strength of my

life ; of whom shall I be afraid?

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mies and my foes,

Came upon me to eat up my flesh,
They stumbled and fell.

against me,

My heart shall not fear:

For in the time of trouble he shall 5 כִּי יְצְפְּנֵנִי בְּסְכַּר בְּיוֹם רָעָה

Though war should rise against


In this will I be confident.

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hide me in his pavilion:

In the secret of his tabernacle shall
he hide me;

He shall set me upon a rock.

The reader will notice that the second verse of the translation is enclosed in braces, because it differs from the Hebrew order, which is as follows:

Upon the coming against me of the wicked to eat up my flesh —
My enemies and my foes they stumbled and fell."

The preacher in expounding to his congregation one of the Psalms of David, will find it very convenient to have the original by the side of the English version. For private reading and meditation, also, such an arrangement will be found very pleasant and profitable. We feel confident that this little volume will be a favorite with Hebrew scholars; and that, when they have once become habituated to it, it will be, to many of them, a vade


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A BOOK from the South has always been comparatively a rare thing, like the rara avis of Horace, or Virgil's rari nantes in gurgite vasto. And the phenomenon grew more and more infrequent as the Southern states drew nearer to the gulf of secession. The public may well be surprised, therefore, at the appearance in 1861, the year of the great rebellion, of this beautiful octavo of 560 pages on the Bible and the Classics, from the pen of the lamented Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia, and from the press of those good Presbyterians, Robert Carter and brothers, of New York.

It appears from the author's preface, that after laboring in vain more than forty years to persuade others, in his view better qualified, to undertake the work, the bishop, whose praise has long been in other "churches" besides his own, felt it his duty to forestall scepticism and cavilling by attempting an elucidation of the real bearing of the poetry and philosophy of heathen nations, and especially of the Greek and Latin classics, upon the Bible. This he has done with much zeal and industry. He gives a list of more than fifty distinct works, which he has consulted in the preparation. As might be expected, perhaps, the majority of these were standard works among the last rather than the present generation of scholars. Still the number is not small of such recent authors as Wiseman, Wilkinson, Rawlinson, Trench, Guyot, Hitchcock, Hugh Miller, Taylor Lewis, Fairbanks, etc. Of German authors he has made little use. Müller on the Eumenides is the only German work which appears in the list. He has made free use of these works, and of Articles in American Quarterlies, extracting copiously from them, and scrupulously giving credit for his extracts. Among others, he has drawn pretty largely from the columns of the Bibliotheca, particularly from the articles on the Theology of Aeschylus and Sophocles. With a modesty equal to his integrity and his well-known charity, the author claims only to be a compiler The book is thesaurus of opinions and arguments quoted directly or indirectly from an immense number of writers, on the connection between profane and sacred literature; and for these, it is really valuable to clergymen and others interested in that most important subject, though they will not always find these as well arranged and digested as they could wish. The following sentences from the preface will indicate the author's point of view: "There is no sentiment more generally admitted, than that 'the universal consent of mankind points to truth.' If, notwithstanding great perversions and corruptions, the various religions of earth point to some early facts common to them all, we have only to examine diligently where the first and true account is to be found, and then show the origin and history of all departures from the same."


1 The Bible and the Classics. By the Right Reverend William Meade, Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia. New York: Robert Carter and Brothers.


PROFESSOR Owen's first edition of the Anabasis was published nearly twenty years since, and was the first of his classical works. As originally prepared, it was very favorably received and extensively used. The present edition has been prepared after an additional experience of twenty years in classical teaching, and increased familiarity with the language, acquired by editing several other valuable classical works. Nor are Professor Owen's own studies and experience the only advantage with which he comes to the preparation of this new edition. There has been marked progress in the study of Greek in the period referred to; and much valuable apparatus, in grammatical works, in travels illustrative of the topography, and in antiquities, is now accessible, which did not then exist in so definite and reliable a form. The present edition shows the rich fruits of these advantages, and is itself an index of our classical progress.

Besides the grammatical references in the Notes, there are very full references, through the first Book, to Kühner's Elementary grammar, and to Professor Hadley's grammar.

The work in its present form, with the beautiful Porsonian Greek type, with pertinent and well-digested Notes, furnishes the student all the neces sary material, in the best form, for a critical and comprehensive study of this beautiful narrative.

Rev. Dr. Whedon's statement of the Doctrines of Methodism, which appears in the first Article of our present Number, forms the second Article in a Series, the design of which is to present the distinctive peculiarities of each theological school or sect, and to present them in such a form that the friends of that school or sect shall not complain that their views are misrepresented. The Series has been deemed important for obtaining, within a brief compass, an accurate knowledge of the present phases of theological belief among the different denominations of our land. See Prospectus of Bib. Sac. pp. 3, 4.

The Anabasis of Xenophon; chiefly according to the text of L. Dindorf, with Notes for the use of Schools and Colleges. By John J. Owen, D.D., LL.D., Professor of the Latin and Greek Languages and Literature in the Free Academy in New York City. Revised edition. 12mo. pp. 436. New York: Leavitt and Allen. 1862.








JULY, 1862.


FROM 1555 TO 1560.1




THE existence of this document became known to the writer during a recent visit to Geneva, in the course of some investigations relating to the translation of the Scriptures into English known as the Genevan Version, and prepared under the auspices of the English refugees in that city, in

1 This title may not be so exact, historically, as 'Notice of the English Colony'; but it may be sufficiently exact, even as characterizing the religious position of this class of men, and is adopted as more suggestive of the aspect of the document which sets forth its special claim to attention among us. This English Church at Geneva, according to Fuller, almost a contemporary historian, took stronger ground against traditions and ceremonies than any of the exiles who fled to the continent on account of their opposition to Romanism.

2 Les persécutions d'Angleterre contre l'Evangile faisoient, de ce temps, venir beaucoup d'Angloys à Genève, qui y dressèrent Eglise pour leur nation, vivans paisiblement et en bonne conversation.― (Chronique de Michel Roset, Livre V. Chap. 71. Ms. des Archives.)

VOL. XIX. No. 75.


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