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a vacillating government, swayed by the changing popular will, and agitated by all the conflicts and controversies of the day, he found here a petty state nearly impoverished, with a sparse population, originating nothing in business, intellect, morals, or religion, but moved only by the influence of the government. Rhegius bad been bred as a gentleman, and was accustomed to refinement. The territory of Lüneburg, with its barren heaths and stagnant waters, was far more desolate and uncultivated then than it is now. Alluding to this, to the rough climate and rude population, he says he finds himself “ at the extreme north, on the borders of the Vandals.” He speaks of the houses of the peasants as “smoky huts, each a Noah's ark, with dogs, cats, cows, calves, pigs, chickens, and sheep, all together around one fire, where the peasant lies in straw, eating bis stinking ham and bread as hard as a whetstone." As an offset for this, he found, instead of time-serving, money-loving burgomasters and councillors, a prince whose heart and soul were won for the pure gospel, having been brought up at the court of his uncle, Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, and educated under Luther at Wittenberg.
The Reformation had found its way, no one knows how, into Lüneburg as early as 1524. A certain Cruse was Lutheran preacher in Celle from that date until 1527. Laymen seem to bave taken a very active part in introducing the new doctrines. The duke's chancellor, John Förster, was the most active and influential among them. In 1525, the very time that the Peasants' War was raging, the duke commenced the work of introducing the Reformation into other towns besides the capital, where there was one preacher of its doctrines. There was a fierce struggle between the two parties during 1526 ; but in 1527, the duke called an assembly of the estates, in which it was decided with great unanimity “ that the gospel should be preached in its original purity, without human additions." Still there was much opposition, especially in the monasteries and in the old free city of Lüneburg, which was still Catholic.
Such was the state of the duchy when Rhegius was introduced into it by the duke as “the best treasure in all the land.He was first made preacher at Celle, and in the following year superintendent of all the churches of the duchy.
Difference of language occasioned him some embarrassment. The Low German was spoken by all the people, and was used in public documents, and in the church. The High German was spoken only at court. This was the very period when the change from the Low to the High German in the duchy commenced, to which Luther’s version of the Bible, and the appointment of preachers who spoke the same language, contributed their share. Rhegius never preached in the popular dialect. The city council of Lüneburg wrote to him in High German while it wrote to the duke in the Low. His intercourse with the clergy was through the Latin. In the cities of Celle and Lüneburg large numbers could understand his sermons in High German ; in the country towns he did not preach at all.
It was fortunate for Rhegius, who was a stranger in his new home, that
he had occasion to spread out in writing bis views on the whole subject in controversy between the Protestants and Catholics. In Hildesheim there was great discussion and confusion; and a member of the council, limself well disposed, wrote to Rhegius for advice. Whereupon the latter wrote and published his “ Reply to a good friend in Hildesheim, on the causes of the present controversy in the matter of faith.” In this he beautifully sets forth the two kinds of religion ; the one a constrained conformity, outwarly, to what is enforced by authority; the other a candid obedience springing from a renewed heart. The controversy, he observes, does not relate to an unimportant or curious matter, but to nothing less than the true way of piety, the way that leads the sinner to God. The natural man seeks to gain heaven in the one way; the spiritual man, in the other. A statement so full, so clear, and so winning, on the practical character of the whole subject in dispute, served as a favorable introduction to all who were priously disposed, in this part of Germany. We cannot, even in outline, follow him through the ten years of his public administration as reformer of the duchy. It forms a chapter in history of too wide a range and of too many details to admit of compression within a few pages. We may say, in conclusion, that, in perusing this biography, we seem to be going over familiar ground, and yet almost every line contains something new. General history takes us through a great thoroughfare, making but few stops. Such books as the one before us, takes us a little way in the same route, but lands us at every stopping place, and gives us ample opportunity to examine every object of interest in the vicinity. With how many shadowy characters, known to us only as they appear once or twice on some great occasion, are we here made familiar! Such contributions are the best commentary on general history, at the saine time that they have a romantic interest peculiarly their own. The acquaintance hereby formed with Rhegius is pleasant, both on its own account, and on account of the charming circle of friends to which it introduces us. He kept good society, and was admitted to the intimacy of many of whose private life we desire to have a more perfect knowledge. The biographer has been equally successful in the investigation and in the representation of his subject. May others, engaged in preparing this new series of biographies, have the good fortune to execute their task as well.
K. A. Schmid's ExcYCLOPEDIA OF EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION;
volume second and a part of volume third. Tuis work, the first volume of which was briefly noticed in the April number of 1859, p. 452, is too important to be classed among the literary novelties of the day. What was said in commendation of it then may be repeated with emphasis now. It is executed with a degree of ability, learning, professional knowledge, judgment, and profound Christian philosophy, rarely to be met with in such works. It will compare well with Herzog's Encyclopedia of Theology, Pauly's Encyclopedia of Classical Antiquity, or Smith's Dictionaries. The editor is aided in his editorial
labors by Prof. Palmer, a distinguished author on education, and Prof. Wildermuth, both of the Tübingen university, and receives contributions from the ablest and best writers on the subject in Germany. One of its designs is to present a thoroughly philosophic and Christian view of education, which shall serve to displace the shallow “philanthropism” and gross rationalism which disfigure so many books on the subject, published during the present century. Without being polemic, it undermines the naturalism which would educate men, either as intelligent animals or as polished heathen. The range of topics is very wide; but every one is viewed in its special relations to education. The subjects on which instruction is given in the schools, the mental faculties to be employed and trained, systems of education, of instruction and discipline; philosophy, morals, and religion; the history of schools, of the school systems of different countries ; biographies of men connected with education; and a multitude of technicalities relating to the schools, all find their appropriate place and their due share of attention in this work. Some articles are very long and some very short, but all of about the right length. The great wonder is that men could be found who have the ability and the leisure to condense the results of so much reading, experience, and observation, within such moderate limits. In numerous cases the writers show that they could have written a volume of solid and interesting matter on their respective topics. The work itself is almost equivalent to an educational library, while, in its several articles, it points out the best books on each subject.
The first article in volume second is on the office, relations, and duties of a “ Director” of a gymnasium and other higher schools, by Deinhardt, himself a distinguished director of a gymnasium. It occupies ten closely printed royal octavo pages, and shows a master's hand.
The next article is on the treatment (including the removal) of unworthy teachers, especially those of the higher schools of learning (Disciplinarverfahren gegen Lehrer). The subject is treated on moral and legal grounds, as well as in the light of expediency, by one who understands both its importance and its delicacy. The third article is on “ Dispensation” from certain required studies, such as Greek or mathematics, in the higher schools. In individual cases, a sparing and very cautious use of this is recommended. Then follows in order "cathedral schools” (Domschulen), * Division of Schools and Division of Labor” (Doppelunterricht), “ Dramatic Representations in Schools,” “Dullness” (Dummheit), “ Marriage (Ehe, what marriages are favorable to the education of children, and what education is favorable to married life), “ The Honors due to Teachers ” (Ehrenrechte der Lehrer), “ The Sentiment of Honor” (Ehrgefühl, its use in education), and others without number. These examples, given in the order in which they stand, are fair specimens of the kind of topics intro duced into the work. Among the longer articles are those on France, occupying 66 pages; on learned Schools, 56 pages; History in Schools, 51 pages; Göthe, what use to make of his works in schools, 24 pages; Great Britain, its system of education, 83 pages; Gymnasia, 62 pages ; VOL. XIX. No. 74.
the Kingdom of Hanover, its system of education, 74 pages; and the Hebrew Language, 32 pages. It is not too much to say that several of these articles, taken singly, are worth 'nearly the price of the whole book. That on France gives us the history of education in that country during the middle
and from that time to the present; an account of the colleges, of the scientific and professional, as well as lower schools of France; of the courses of study pursued in them, and the modes of instruction adopted. The article on learned schools, is written with an insight, a wise selection of matter, and with a judgment and skill that excite admiration. Orly he who has wandered through books of learned lumber, finding everything except what he wants, can fully appreciate the value of such an article. The historical view is complete; and the character of the education now given in the universities and gymnasia is well represented.
The article on the place of History in the Schools, discusses clearly and ably all the fundamental questions relating to this much-debated subject, such as: What is history? Should it be taught in the schools? What portions of it should be introduced ? In what manner should instruction in it be given? In nothing are we more behind the Germans than in the manner of teaching history. Every teacher of it in our colleges and higher institutions of learning would do well to read what is here written.
The article on Great Britain contains, among other things, the most complete, exact, and detailed account of the system of instruction in the English Grammar or Latin schools, — Eaton, Rugby, Harrow, Westminster, Winchester, etc., — which we have ever seen. The courses of study, the methods of instruction, and the character of English scholarship, are portrayed by one who knows what education is, and who knows what those schools are ? An account given by one who has such an eye and such a discriminating judgment, is worth a hundred of those loose accounts furnished by the London book market. Arnold's Life must always be excepted from the common class of books on education. Tom Brown gives more amusement than instruction. From him we learn much of the boisterous life of the Rugby boys, but precious little about their studies.
To a college officer the article on the German gymnasia will be the most important and the most interesting. Almost every question relating to a liberal education is discussed here in a light more or less new. The gymnasia, like our colleges, are neither professional nor practical schools, but schools for general culture. They are, as John Sturm three centuries ago said, distinguished from other schools by the development of the reason and of the power of speech, - ratione et oratione. The chief defect of the old gymnasia was the predominance of the “ verbalia,” almost to the exclusion of the “realia.” Next followed the shallow utilitarian period inaugurated by Campe, Bassedow, and other“ philanthropists.” This unfortunate experiment of teaching in the gymnasia what might be better learned on the farm or by visiting mechanics' shops, and by travelling, only prepared the way for the triumph of Wolf, Hermann, Thiersch, and Böchk, in reestablishing on a firmer foundation than ever, the study of the ancient
classics. The period of the greatest development of the German gymnasia falls within the last fifty years, in which there are two distinct stages, divided with tolerable accuracy by the year 1835.
Through the influence of the great philologists, the study of antiquity was extended in the universities. At the same time, modern science came to be more fully represented in them. This circumstance created new demands upon the gymnasia, which were preparatory to the universities. The greatest exertions were made, during the first half of the period above mentioned, both by the government and by the directors” and professors of the gymnasia, to elevate these schools to a higher position. An abler and nobler body of men than the Prussian educators of this period, including the cabinet ministers of education and teachers in the gymnasia, is hardly to be found in any age or country. What was the effect? It was that the ancient languages were studied with enthusiasm on the one hand, and mathematics and the modern sciences were placed side by side with them on the other.
This introduces the second half of the period named above, which opens with Dr. Lorinser's celebrated book on the Health of Students in the schools (zum Schutze der Gesundheit in der Schulen). The ground taken was, that while education was promoted, the health of the young men was ruined by this overstrained system of instruction. Though the array of facts presented by this medical riter was attended with some exaggerations, there was enough of truth and reason in what he said to produce an immense sensation in the minds of the most thoughtful men. Its first effect was to favor a division of study by establishing scientific schools (Realschulen, Realgymnasien), or by elevating and strengthening those already in existence. The friends of the Realschulen were not content with their establishment as practical schools to educate men of business, but wished to make them rivals of the gymnasia by making them schools of general culture, substituting mathematics for Greek. This experiment awakened two inquiries : first, whether two classes of schools of general culture could both prosper for any long period. Would not both suffer on account of the divided attention of the people, or the one prosper at the expense of the other ? Secondly, whether general culture, founded on modern science and literature, could ever safely be made a substitute for the old system of liberal education. On these points, earnest controversies sprang up; both sides of which, as well as several mediating views, were ably argued by distinguished educators. Meanwhile numerous experiments were tried. Realgymnasien, or schools of science, were organized, equipped, and manned, like the other gymnasia. In some schools there were parallel courses, classical and scientific, either of which might be chosen by the students. The experiment has not proved satisfactory. The importance attached to the study of the languages was diminished in the minds of the students. Preparation in the lower schools was relaxed. The loss of classical culture thus caused, was not made good by the training given in the scientific schools. The result was undeniably a lowering in the tone of liberal education.