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66 of Nations*.”
$. 9. PREVENTION is when an Autbor starts an Objection, which he forefees may be made against any thing he affirms, defires, or advises to; and gives an Answer to it.
What then remains?. Are we depriv'd of Will? Must we not ask, for fear of asking Ill ? - Receive my Counsel, and securely move; Intrust thy Fortune to the Pow'rs above. Leave God to manage for thee, and to grant What his unerring Wisdom sees thee wants
This generally gets the Author the Reputation of Foresight and Care; of Diligence, and a generous Assurance of the Reason and Justice of his Cause.
* Germanicus in his noble Speech to his mutinous Soldiers, Tacit. Annal. I. 27. &c. See also Scipio's noble Speech to the Mutineers at Sucro, Liv. Vol. 3. lib. 28. p. 360. Ed. Hearne. Š Dryd. Juv. Sat. 10. V. 346, &c.
When he puts the Objections against himself in their full Force, it is plain that he does not fear the clearest Light, nor decline the strictest Examination. By it likewise some Advantage is gain’d over an Adversary: He is forestalla and prevented in his Exceptions; and either filenc'd, or oblig'd to a Repetition; which is not so grateful as the Mention of a Thing fresh and untouch'd.
To this Figure may be referr'd Premunition, whereby the Speaker, especially in the Entrance and Beginning of his Discourse, cautiously guards himself against Prejudice and Misapprehension; that he may neither leffen his Interest with his Friends, nor inflamne the Malice, and increase the Power of those who watch to do him Mischief.
10. Concession freely allows Something that yet might bear some Dispute, to obtain something that a
Man would have granted to him, and which he thinks cannot fairly be deny'd.
This Figure is sometimes favourable in the Beginning, but severe and cutting in the Close; as Tully upon the Greeks
" I allow the Greeks “ Learning and Skill in many Sciences;
Sharpness of Wit, and Fluency of “ Tongue; and if you praise them “ for any other Excellencies, I shall “ not much contradict you; but that « Nation was never eminent for Ten“ derness of Conscience, and Regard " to Faith and Truth." Sometimes the first Parts are fretting and severe, but the Conclusion healing "I
am, Sir, I own, a Pimp, the com« mon Bane of Youth, a perjur'd Villain, a very Peft; but
but I never did you any Injury * ” The Shew of Candor and Veracity a Man makes by
* Sannio to Æschinus in Terence Adelph. 2. 1. 34, 35.
this Figure in frankly granting fo much, removes from him the Suspicion of Partiality; and gives him more Credit and Authority in what he denies.
Another fort of Concession is, when fearing we cannot obtain all we defire, we give up one Part to carry the rest. When Dido despairs of prevailing with Æneas to settle with her ac Carthage, she only intreats he would stay a little longer, to allow her fome Time to assuage her Grief, and prepare to bear his Departure.
The Nuptials he disclaims, I urge no more;
'Tis by this Figure that oppress’d People, in the Extremity of their
* Dryd. Virg. Æn. IV.
Indignation, provoke their Enemies to do them all the Mischief they can, and proceed still to farther Degrees of Barbarity; that such lively Representations of their Injustice and Cruelty may strike them with Horror and Shame, and dispose them to relent. The Complaints and Upbraidings of jarring Friends and Lovers are most emphatically express’d in this Figure: The Design of which is to give the guilty Person a deep Sense of his Unkindness, and to kindle all the old Passion and Tenderness.
Proceed, inbuman Parent, in thy Scorn,
* Dryden's Virgil, G.IV. 329, &c.