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and disturb'd, that he cannot regularly inlarge upon them. Besides, he has some Fear, that if he should say all his Indignation would dictate, he might trespass upon the Patience of his Hearers; therefore he only gives shorter Hints, and pretends that Time and Reverence for them will not allow him to be more copious and express. This Figure is serviceable to an Orator, in
proposing his weaker Arguments ; which yet
he knows lie more level to the Capacities of some Part of his Audience; which he desires to have an Interest in: therefore he does not quite omit them, because they may make Impressions on those People to his Advantage: And yet he mentions them with an Air of Modesty and Caution, lest he should disgust another Part of his Audience, to whom they don't appear of equal Force and Conviction.
This Figure is related to the Irony. Tully in his first Oration against Catiline points it at that Monster with a just Severity and Satire :
What? When upon the Death of your former Wife, you had made Room in your House for a new Marriage, did not you enhance and confummate that Deed of Horror with another Piece of Wickedness monstrous and incredible ? Which I pass by, and am willing it should be suppress’d in Silence, lest it should be thought,either that such an outrageous Impiety could be committed in this City; or if committed, could be carried off with Impunity.
§. 6. ADDRESS or Apostrophe is when in a vehement Commotion a Man turns himself on all sides, and applies to the Living and Dead, to Angels and Men, to Rocks, Groves, and Rivers,
O Woods, O Fountains, Hillocks, Dales,
With other Echo late I taught your Shades
To answer, and resound far other Song *.
When the Passion is violent, it must break out and discharge itself. By this Figure the Person mov'd defires to interest universal Nature in his Cause ; and appeals to all the Creation for the Justnefs of his Transport. Adam's Morning Hymn in + Milton, is a Chain and Continuation of the most beautiful and charming ApoAtrophes ; 'tis an astonishing Flight of Poetry in Imitation of the inspir'd Writers, and can scarce be outdone by human Wit.
When the Poets address a Mufe or some divine Power to affift and direct them, this kind of Apostrophe or poetical Prayer is called Invocation. By which they gain Esteem both to their Persons and Poems: They are look'd upon as favour'd, their Poems as inspir'd, by Heaven, In the Progress of
* Adam in Milt. Par. Loft. 10, 860, &c. + Par. Loft. V. 153, &c.
their Poems they often repeat these. pious Addresses ; especially when a Difficulty arises, that surmounts human Power, or a Secret is to be reveald, that could not be found out by human Sagacity. These Invocations, repeated at reasonable Distances, and upon Occasions that require them; diversify che Manner of the Style, refresh the Reader, after a long Narration, and gratify him with Change and Novelty.
A Species of this Figure I take Communication to be, when the Speaker applies to his Judges and Hearers, and intreats their Opinion upon the Question in Debate. By this a Man declares his hearty and unfeign'd Concern for the Cause, and pays Deference and Honour to those he addresses ; they are pleas'd with his Modesty and Submission, and so inclin'd to hear and judge with Favour. There is a fort of Communication something different from this, when a Person excuses his Conduct, gives Reafons for it,
and appeals to those about him, whether they be not satisfactory.
What should I do? While here I was enchain'd,
No Glympse of godlike Liberty remain’d:
§. 7. SUSPENSION begins and carries on a Period or Discourse in such a Manner as pleases the Reader all along, and keeps him in Expectation of some conßderable Thing in the Conclufon. With what infinite Sweetness does Eve carry on, with what grateful Surprise close up, that rapturous
Speech to Adam, worthy an Inhabitant of Paradise, and the State of Innocence!
Sweet is the Breath of Morn, &c.
* Dryd. Virg. Eclog. l.