Imatges de pàgina



universally welcome reception. Yet there were, in every , of an ass, nor done them any other injury.” But his one of the thirteen tribes, some discontented restless enemies had made the charge, and with some success spirits, who were continually exciting them to reject among the populace ; for no kind of accusation is so tle proposed new government—and this from various readily made, or easily believed, by knaves, as the acmotives.

cusation of knavery. Many still retained an affection for Egypt, the land In fine, no less than two hundred and fifty of the of their nativity; and these, whenever they felt any in- principal men, “ famous in the congregation, men of reconvenience or hardship, through the natural and un- nown,”* heading and exciting the mob, worked them up avoidable effect of their change of situation, exclaimed to such a pitch of frenzy that they called out, “ Stone against their leaders as the authors of their trouble; and 'em, stone 'em, and thereby secure our liberties; and were not only for returning into Egypt, but for stoning let us choose other captains, that they may lead us back their deliverers.* Those inclined to idolatry were dis- into Egypt, in case we do not succeed in reducing the pleased that their golden calf was destroyed. Many of Canaanites." the chiefs thought the new constitution might be injuri- On the whole, it appears that the Israelites were a ous to their particular interests, that the profitable places people jealous of their newly acquired liberty, which would be engrossed by the families and friends of Moses jealousy was in itself no fault; but that, when they sufand Aaron, and others equally well born excluded.+ In fered it to be worked upon by artful men, pretending Josephus, and the Talmud, we learn some particulars, public good, with nothing really in view but private innot so fully narrated in the Scripture. We are there terest, they were led to oppose the establishment of the told, that Koral was ambitious of the priesthood, and new constitution, whereby they brought upon themoffended that it was conferred on Aaron; and this, as selves much inconvenience and misfortune. It farther he said, by the authority of Moses only, without the con- appears from the same inestimable history, that when, sent of the people. He accused Moses of having, by after many ages, the constitution had become old and various artifices, fraudulently obtained the government, much abused, and an amendment of it was proposed, and deprived the people of their liberties; and of con- the populace, as they had accused Moses of the ambispiring with Aaron to perpetuate the tyranny in their tion of making himself a prince, and cried out, “ Stone family. Thus, though Korah's real motive was the him, stone him!" so, excited by their high priests and supplanting of Aaron, he persuaded the people that he scribes, they exclaimed against the Messiah that he meant only the public good : and they, moved by his aimed at becoming king of the Jews, and cried “ Crucify insinuations, began to cry out——“Let us maintain the him, crucify him!”. From all which we may gather, common liberty of our respective tribes : we have freed that popular opposition to a public measure is no proof ourselves from the slavery imposed upon us by the of its impropriety, even though the opposition be excited Egyptians, and shall we suffer ourselves to be made and headed by men of distinction. slaves by Moses? If we must have a master, it were To conclude, I beg I may not be understood to infer, better to return to Pharaoh, who at least fed us with that our general convention was divinely inspired when it bread and onions, than to serve this new tyrant, who formed the new federal constitution, merely because that by his operations has brought us into danger of famine." constitution has been unreasonably and vehemently opThen they called into question the reality of his con- posed; yet, I must own, I have so much faith in the ferences with God; and objected to the privacy of the general government of the world by Providence, that ineetings, and the preventing any of the people from I can hardly conceive a transaction of such momentous being present at the colloquies, or even approaching importance to the welfare of millions now existing, the place, as grounds of great suspicion. They accused and to exist in the posterity of a great nation, should Moses also of peculation; as embezzling part of the be suffered to pass without being in some degree influgolden spoons and the silver chargers, that the princes enced, guided, and governed by that omnipotent, omnihad offered at the dedication of the altar, and the offer- present, and beneficent Ruler, in whom all inferior spiings of gold by the common people, as well as most rits live, and move, and have their being. of the poll-tax ;ll and Aaron they accused of pocket. mg much of the gold, of which he pretended to have made a molten calf. Besides peculation, they charged Moses with ambition; to gratify which passion he had,

ON THE DEATH OF HIS BROTHER, MR they said, deceived the people, by promising to bring

JOHN FRANKLIN. them to a land flowing with milk and honey; instead of doing which, he had brought them from such a land; and that he thought light of all this mischief, provided I CONDOLE with you. We have lost a most dear and he could make himself an absolute prince. T. That, to valuable relation. But it is the will of God and nature, support the new dignity with splendour in his family, that these mortal bodies be laid aside, when the soul is the partial poll-tax already levied and given to Aaron,

to enter into real life. This is rather an embryo state, was to be followed by a general one,tt which would pro- a preparation for living. A man is not completely bably be augmented from time to time, if he were suf- born until he be dead. Why then should we grieve fered to go on promulgating new laws, on pretence of that a new child is born among the immortals a new new occasional revelations of the Divine will, till their member added to their happy society? We are spirits. whole fortunes were devoured by that aristocracy.

That bodies should be lent us, while they can afford Moses denied the charge of peculation, and his ac

us pleasure, assist us in acquiring knowledge, or doing cusers were destitute of proofs to support it; though good to our fellow-creatures, is a kind and benevolent fucts, if real, are in their nature capable of proof. “I act of God. When they become unfit for these purhave not,” said he (with holy confidence in the presence poses, and afford us pain instead of pleasure—instead of God)“ I have not taken from this people the value of an aid become an incumbrance, and answer none of

the intentions for which they were given-it is equally * Numbers, chap. xiv.

+ Numbers, chap. xvi. ver. 3. “And they gathered themselves kind and benevolent that a way is provided by which together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them,

we may get rid of them. Death is that way. We ourYo take too much upon you, soeing all the congregation are holy, selves, in some cases, prudently choose a partial death. every one of them. Wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above A mangled painful limb, which cannot be restored, we the congregation ?"

willingly cut off. He who plucks out a tooth, parts Numbers, chap. vii. Ş Exodus, chap. xxxv. ver. 22. with it freely, since the pain goes with it; and he who | Numbers, chap. iii., and Exodus, chap. xxx.

quits the whole body, parts at once with all pains, and | Numbers, chap. xvi. ver. 13. " Is it a small thing that thou possibilities of pains and diseases, it was liable to, or bast brought us up out of a land flowing with milk and honey, to capable of making him suffer. kill us in this wilderness, except that thou make thyself altogether Our friend and we were invited abroad on a party a prince over us po ** Numbers, chap. iii. # Exodus, chap. xxx.

* Ninners, chap. xvi.


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of pleasure, which is to last for ever. His chair was to admit of his employing a sail when he found it necesready first; and he is gone before us. We could not sary, it readily occurred that a greater depth of keel all conveniently start together; and why should you would have this tendency. But a greater depth of keel, and I be grieved at this, since we are soon to follow, though it would have been useful for this purpose, he and know where to find him? Adieu, B. FRANKLIN. easily foresaw would make his boat be extremely in

convenient on many other occasions. To effect both purposes, he thought of adopting a moveable keel, which

would admit of being let down or taken up at pleasure. NAUTICAL AFFAIRS.

This idea he immediately carried into effect, by fixing Though Britain bestows more attention on trade than a bar of iron, of the depth he wanted, along each side of any other nation, and though it be the general opinion, the keel, "moving upon hinges that admitted of being that the safety of their state depends upon her navy moved in one direction, but which could not be bent alone ; yet it seems not a little extraordinary, that most back in the opposite direction. Thus, by means of a of the great improvements in ship-building have origi- small chain fixed to each end, these moveable keels nated abroad. "The best sailing-vessels in the royal could be easily lifted up at pleasure ; so that when he navy have in general been French prizes. This, was entering into a harbour, or shoal water, he had though it may admit of exceptions, cannot be upon only to lift up his keels, and the boat was as capable of the whole disputed.

being managed there, as if he had wanted them entirely; Nor is Britain entirely inattentive to naval archi- and when he went out to sea, where there was depth tecture, though it is no where scientifically taught; enough, by letting them down, the lee keel took a firm and those who devise improvements have seldom an hold of the water (while the other floated loose), and opportunity of bringing them into practice. What a gave such a steadiness to all its movements, as can pity it is, that no contrivance should be adopted for scarcely be conceived by those who have not expericoncentrating the knowledge that different individuals enced it. attain in this art into one common focus, if the ex- This gentleman one day carried me out with him in pression may be admitted. Our endeavours shall not his boat to try it. We made two experiments. At first be wanting to collect together, in the best way we can, with a moderate breeze, when the moveable keels were the scattered hints that shall occur under this head, kept up, the boat, when laid as near the wind as it could not doubting but the public will receive with favour go, made an angle with the wake of about 30 degrees; this humble attempt to awaken attention to a subject but when the keels were let down, the same angle did of such great national importance.

not exceed five or six degrees, being nearly parallel Dr Franklin, among the other inquiries that had with the course. engaged his attention, during a long life spent in the At another time, the wind was right ahead, a brisk uninterrupted pursuit of useful improvements, did not breeze. When we began to beat up against it, a tradlet this escape his notice; and many useful hints, tend- ing sloop was very near us, steering the same course ing to perfect the art of navigation, and to meliorate with us. This sloop went through the water a good the condition of sea-faring people, occur in his works. deal faster than we could : but in the course of two In France, the art of constructing ships has long been hours' beating to windward, we found that the sloop a favourite study, and many improvements in that was left behind two feet in three; though it is cer. branch have originated with them. Among the last of tain, that if our false keels had not been let down, we the Frenchmen who have made any considerable im- could scarcely, in that situation, have advanced one provement in this respect, is M. Le Roy, who has foot for her three. It is unnecessary to point out to constructed a vessel well adapted to sail in rivers seafaring men the benefits that may be derived from where the depth of water is inconsiderable, and that this contrivance in certain circumstances, as these will yet was capable of being navigated at sea with great be very obvious to them. case. This he effected in a great measure by the particular mode of rigging, which gave the mariners much greater power over the vessel than they could have

NORTH-WEST PASSAGE. when of the usual construction.

NOTWITHSTANDING the many fruitless attempts that I do not hear that this improvement has in any case have been made to discover a north-west passage into been adopted in Britain. But the advantages that the South Seas, it would seem that this important geowould result from having a vessel of a small draught graphical question is not yet fully decided; for at a of water to sail with the same steadiness, and to lie meeting of the Academy of Sciences, at Paris, held on equally near the wind, as one may do that is sharper the 13th of November last, M. Bauche, first geographer built, are so obvious, that many persons have been de- to the king, read a curious memoir concerning the sirous of falling upon some way to effect it. About north-west passage. M. de Mendoza, an intelligent London, this has been attempted by means of lee boards captain of a vessel in the service of Spain, charged with (a contrivance now so generally known as not to re- the care of former establishments favourable to the quire to be here particularly described), and not with marine, has made a careful examination of the archives out effect. But these are subject to certain inconve- of several departments: there he has found the relation niences, that render the use of them in many cases of a voyage made in the year 1598 by Lorenzo Herrero ineligible.

de Maldonada. There it appears, that at the entry into Others have attempted to effect the purpose by Davis' Straits, north latitude 60 degrees, and 28 of building vessels with more than one keel; and this longitude, counting from the first meridian, he turned contrivance, when adopted upon proper principles, to the west, leaving Hudson's Bay on the south, and promises to be attended with the happiest effects. But Baffin's Bay on the north. Arrived at latitude 65 and hitherto that seems to have been scarcely attended to. 297, he went towards the north by the Straits of LabraTime will be necessary to eradicate common notions of dor, till he reached 76 and 278; and, finding himself in very old standing, before this can be effectually done. the Icy Sea, he turned south-west to latitude 60 and

Mr W. Brodie, ship-master in Leith, has lately 235, where he found a strait which separates Asia from adopted a contrivance for this purpose, that seems to America, by which he entered into the South Sea, be at the same time very simple and extremely effica- which he called the Straits of Anian. This passage cious. Necessity, in this case, as in many others, was ought to be, according to M. Bauche, between William's the mother of invention. He had a small, flat, ill-built Sound and Mount St Elias. The Russians and Captain boat, which was so ill constructed as scarcely to admit Cook have not observed it, because it is very narrow. of carrying a bit of sail on any occasion, and which was But it is to be wished, that this important discovery at the same time so heavy to be rowed, that he found should be verified, which has been overlooked for two great difficulty in using it for his ordinary occasions. centuries, in spite of the attempts which have been In reflecting on the means that might be adopted for inade on these coasts. M. Bauche calls this passage giving this useless coble such a hold of the water as the Straits of Ferrer.




Romans did, in plundering their conquered neighbours; POSITIONS TO BE EXAMINED.

this is robbery. The second by commerce, which is gene 1. All food, or subsistence for mankind, arises from rally cheating. The third by agriculture, the only the earth or waters.

honest way, wherein man receives a real increase of the 2. Necessaries of life that are not food, and all other seed thrown into the ground, in a kind of continual conveniences, have their value estimated in the propor- miracle wrought by the hand of God in his favour, as tion of food consumed while we are employed in pro- a reward for his innocent life and his virtuous industry curing them.

B. FRANKLIN. 3. A small people with a large territory, may subsist on the productions of nature, with no other labour than that of gathering the vegetables and catching the animals.

THE INTERNAL STATE OF AMERICA; 4. A large people with a small territory, find these

BEING A TRUE DESCRIPTION OF THE INTEREST AND POLICY insufficient; and, to subsist, must labour the earth, to make it produce greater quantities of vegetable food, suitable for the nourishment of men, and of the ani- THERE is a tradition, that in the planting of New Eng. mals they intend to eat.

land, the first settlers met with many difficulties and 5. From this labour arises a great increase of vege- hardships ; as is generally the case when a civilised table and animal food, and of materials for clothing; as people attempt establishing themselves in a wilderness flax, wool, silk, &c. The superfluity of these is wealth. country. Being piously disposed, they sought relief With this wealth we pay for the labour employed in from heaven, by laying their wants and distresses bebuilding our houses, cities, &c., which are therefore fore the Lord, in frequent set days of fasting and prayer. only subsistence thus metamorphosed.

Constant meditation and discourse on these subjects 6. Manufactures are only another shape into which kept their minds gloomy and discontented; and, like so much provisions and subsistence are turned, as were the children of Israel, there were many disposed to rein value equal to the manufactures produced. This turn to that Egypt which persecution had induced them appears from hence, that the manufacturer does not, in to abandon. At length, when it was proposed in the fact, obtain from the employer for his labour more than Assembly to proclaim another fast, a farmer of plain a mere subsistence, including raiment, fuel, and shelter; sense rose and remarked, that the inconveniences they all which derive their value from the provisions con- suffered, and concerning which they had so often wearied sumed in procuring them.

Heaven with their complaints, were not so great as 7. The produce of the earth, thus converted into they might have expected, and were diminishing every manufactures, may be more easily carried into distant day as the colony strengthened ; that the earth began markets than before such conversion.

to reward their labour, and to furnish liberally for 8. Fair commerce is, where equal values are exchanged their subsistence; that the seas and rivers were found for equal, the expense of transport included. Thus, if full of fish—the air sweet, the climate healthy; and, it costs A in England as much labour and charge to above all, that they were there in the full enjoyment raise a bushel of wheat, as it costs B in France to pro- of liberty, civil and religious: he therefore thought, duce four gallons of wine, then are four gallons of wine that reflecting and conversing on these subjects would the fair exchange for a bushel of wheat, A and B meet- be more comfortable, as tending more to make them ing at half distance with their commodities to make the contented with their situation; and that it would be exchange. The advantage of this fair commerce is, more becoming the gratitude they owed to the Divine that each party increases the number of his enjoyments, Being, if, instead of a fast, they should proclaim a thankshaving, instead of wheat alone, or wine alone, the use giving. His advice was taken ; and from that day to of both wheat and wine.

this they have, in every year, observed circumstances 9. Where the labour and expense of producing both of public felicity sufficient to furnish employment for a commodities are known to both parties, bargains will thanksgiving day; which is therefore constantly or. generally be fair and equal. Where they are known dered and religiously observed. to one party only, bargains will often be unequal, know- I see in the public newspapers of different states freledge taking its advantage of ignorance.

quent complaints of hard times, deadness of trade, scar10. Thus he that carries a thousand bushels of wheat city of money, &c. &c. It is not my intention to assert abroad to sell, may not probably obtain so great a pro- or maintain that these complaints are entirely without fit thereon as if he had first turned the wheat into manu- foundation. There can be no country or nation existfactures, by subsisting therewith the workmen while ing, in which there will not be some people so circumproducing those manufactures, since there are many stanced as to find it hard to gain a livelihood-people, expediting and facilitating methods of working not who are not in the way of any profitable trade, with generally known; and strangers to the manufactures, whom money is scarce, because they have nothing to though they know pretty well the expense of raising give in exchange for it ; and it is always in the power wheat, are unacquainted with those short methods of of a small number to make a great clamour. But let working; and thence, being apt to suppose more labour us take a cool view of the general state of our affairs, employed in the manufacture than there really is, are and perhaps the prospect will appear less gloomy than more easily imposed on in their value, and induced to has been imagined. allow more for them than they are honestly worth. The great business of the continent is agriculture.

11. Thus the advantage of having manufactures in a For one artizan, or merchant, I suppose we have at country does not consist, as is commonly supposed, in least one hundred farmers, by far the greatest part cul. their highly advancing the value of rough materials, of tivators of their own fertile lands, from whence many which they are formed ; since, though sixpennyworth of of them draw not only food necessary for their subsistflax may be worth twenty shillings when worked into lace, ence, but the materials of their clothing, so as to need yet the very cause of its being worth twenty shillings very few foreign supplies: while they have a surplus is that, besides the flax, it has cost nineteen shillings of productions to dispose of, whereby wealth is graduand sixpence in subsistence to the manufacturer. But ally accumulated. Such has been the goodness of Di. the advantage of manufactures is, that, under their vine Providence to these regions, and so favourable the shape, provisions may be more easily carried to a climate, that, since the three or four years of hardship foreign market; and by their means our traders may in the first settlement of our fathers here, a famine or more easily cheat strangers. Few, where it is not made, scarcity has never been heard of amongst us: on the are judges of the value of lace. The importer may de contrary, though some years may have been more, and mand forty, and perhaps get thirty, shillings for that others less plentiful, there has always been provision which cost him but twenty.

enough for ourselves, and a quantity to spare for ex. 12. Finally, there seems to be but three ways for a portation. And although the crops of last year were nation to acquire wealth. The first is by war, as the I geucrally good, ucver was thic fariner better paid for

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77 the part he can spare commerce, as the published prices | public good; the differences are only about the various current abundantly testify. The lands he possesses modes of promoting it. Things, actions, measures, and are also continually rising in value, with the increase objects of all kinds, present themselves to the minds of

of population; and, on the whole, he is enabled to give men in such a variety of lights, that it is not possible - such good wages to those that work for him, that all we should all think alike at the same time on every

who are acquainted with the old world must agree, that subject, when hardly the same man retains at all times in no part of it are the labouring poor so generally well the same ideas of it. Parties are therefore the comfed, well clothed, well lodged, and well paid, as in the mon lot of humanity; and ours are by no means more United States of America.

mischievous or less beneficial than those of other If we enter the cities, we find that since the revolu- countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the same detion, the owners of houses and lots of ground have had gree the great blessing of political liberty. their interest vastly augmented in value; rents have Some, indeed, among us are not so much grieved for risen to an astonishing height, and thence encourage- the present state of our affairs, as apprehensive for the ment to increase building, which gives employment to future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they abundance of workmen, as does also the increased think we are from that alone in the high road to ruin. laxury and splendour of living of the inhabitants, thus They observe, that no revenue is sufficient without made richer. These workmen all demand and obtain economy, and that the most plentiful income of a whole much higher wages than any other part of the world people from the natural productions of their country, would afford them, and are paid in ready money. This may be dissipated in vain and needless expenses, and rank of people, therefore, do not or ought not to com- poverty be introduced in the place of affluence. This plain of hard times; and they make a very considerable may be possible. It, however, rarely happens; for there part of the city inhabitants.

seems to be in every nation a greater proportion of inAt the distance I live from our American fisheries, dustry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of I cannot speak of them with any degree of certainty; idleness and prodigality, which occasion poverty; so bat I have not heard that the labour of the valuable that, upon the whole, there is a continual accumulation. race of men employed in them is worse paid, or that Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain, were they meet with less success, than before the revolution. in the time of the Romans, inhabited by people little The whalemen, indeed, have been deprived of one market richer than our savages, and consider the wealth that for their oil, but another, I hear, is opening for them, they at present possess, in numerous well-built cities, which it is hoped may be equally advantageous; and improved farms, rich moveables, magazines stocked the demand is constantly increasing for their spermaceti with valuable manufactures to say nothing of plate, candles, which therefore bear a much higher price than jewels, and coined money and all this, notwithstanding formerly.

their bad, wasteful, plundering governments, and their There remain the merchants and shop-keepers. Of mad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant these, though they make but a small part of the whole living has never suffered much restraint in those nation, the number is considerable, too great indeed for countries. Then, consider the great proportion of inthe business they are employed in ; for the consumption dustrious frugal farmers inhabiting the interior parts of goods in every country has its limits; the faculties of of these American States, and of whom the body of our the people—that is, their ability to buy and pay-are nation consists, and judge whether it is possible that equal only to a certain quantity of merchandise. If the luxury of our seaports can be sufficient to ruin merchants calculate amiss on this proportion, and im- such a country. If the importation of foreign luxuries port too much, they will of course find the sale dull for could ruin a people, we should probably have been the overplus, and some of them will say that trade ruined long ago—for the British nation claimed a right, languishes. They should, and doubtless will, grow and practised it, of importing among us, not only the wiser by experience, and import less.

superfluities of their own productions, but those of If too many artificers in town, and farmers from the every nation under heaven; we bought and consumed country, flattering themselves with the idea of leading them, and yet we flourished and grew rich. At present easier lives, turn shopkeepers, the whole natural quan- our independent governments may do what we could tity of that business divided among them all may afford not then do-discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by too small a share for each, and occasion complaints heavy prohibitions, such importations, and thereby grow that trading is dead: these may also suppose that it is richer;-if indeed, which may admit of dispute, the owing to scarcity of money, while, in fact, it is not so desire of adorning ourselves with fine clothes, possessmuch from the fewness of buyers as from the exces- ing fine furniture, with elegant houses, &c., is not, by sive number of sellers, that the mischief arises : and strongly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of if every shopkeeping farmer and mechanic would return producing a greater value than is consumed in the to the use of his plough and working tools, there would gratification of that desire. remain of widows, and other women, shopkeepers suffi- The agriculture and fisheries of the United States cient for the business, which might then afford them a are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that comfortable maintenance.

puts a seed into the earth is recompensed, perhaps, by Whoever has travelled through the various parts of receiving forty out of it, and he who draws a fish out Europe, and observed how small is the proportion of of our water draws up a piece of silver. people in affluence or easy circumstances there, com- Let us (and there is no doubt but we shall) be attenpared with those in poverty and misery—the few rich tive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their and haughty landlords, the multitude of poor, abject, restraining and prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. rack-rented, tithe-paying tenants, and half-paid and We are sons of the earth and seas, and, like Antæus in half-starved ragged labourers—and views here the the fable, if, in wrestling with a Hercules, we now and happy mediocrity that so generally prevails throughout then receive a fall, the touch of our parents will comthese States, where the cultivator works for himself, municate to us fresh strength and vigour to renew the and supports his family in decent plenty-will, methinks, contest. see abundant reason to bless Divine Providence for the evident and great difference in our favour, and be convinced that no nation known to us enjoys a greater

INFORMATION TO THOSE WHO WOULD sbare of human felicity. It is true that in some of the States there are parties

REMOVE TO AMERICA. and discords ; but let us look back, and ask if we were Many persons in Europe having directly, or by letters, ever without them ? Such will exist wherever there expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted is liberty; and perhaps they help to preserve it. By with North America, their desire of transporting and the collision of different sentiments, sparks of truth are establishing themselves in that country, but who appear struck out, and political light is obtained. The differ- to have formed, through ignorance, mistaken ideas and ent factions which at prescut divide us, aim all at the expectations of what is to be obtained there-he thinks

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INFORMATION TO INTENDING EMIGRANTS. it may be useful, and prevent inconvenient, expensive, | any useful art, he is welcome; and if he exercises it, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, and behaves well, he will be respected by all that know if he gives some clearer and truer notions of that part him; but a mere man of quality, who on that account of the world than appear to have hitherto prevailed. wants to live upon the public by some office or salary,

He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the inhabi- will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman tants of North America are rich, capable of rewarding, is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity; that their employments are useful. The people have a says they are, at the same time, ignorant of all the sciences, ing, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the and consequently that strangers possessing talents in greatest in the universe ; and he is respected and ad. the belles lettres, fine arts, &c., must be highly esteemed, mired more for the variety, ingenuity, and utility of his and so well paid as to become easily rich themselves; handicraft works, than for the antiquity of his family, that there are also abundance of profitable offices to bé They are pleased with the observation of a negro, and disposed of, which the natives are not qualified to fill; frequently mention it, “ that boccarorra (meaning the and that, having few persons of family among them, white man) make de black man workee, make de horse strangers of birth must be greatly respected, and of workee, make de ox workee, make ebery ting workce, course easily obtain the best of those offices, which will only de hog. He, de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, make all their fortunes : that the governments, too, to he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he libb encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the like a gentleman.”. According to these opinions of the expense of personal transportation, but give lands Americans, one of them would think himself more oh. gratis to strangers, with negroes to work for them, liged to a genealogist who could prove to him that his utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are ancestors and relations for ten generations had been all wild imaginations ; and those who go to America ploughmen, smiths, carpenters, turners, weavers, tanwith expectations founded upon them, will surely find ners, or even shoe-makers—and consequently that they themselves disappointed.

were useful members of society—than if he could only The truth is, that though there are in that country prove that they were gentlemen, doing nothing of value, few people so miserable as the poor of Europe, there but living idly on the labour of others, mere fruges are also very few that in Europe would be called rich; consumere nati,* and otherewise good for nothing, till it is rather a general happy mediocrity that prevails. by their death their estates, like the carcass of the There are few great proprietors of the soil, and few negro's gentleman-hog, come to be cut up. tenants; most people cultivate their own lands, or fol- With regard to encouragements for strangers from low some handicraft or merchandise ; very few rich government, they are really only what are derived from enough to live idly upon their rents or incomes, or good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome, because to pay the high prices given in Europe for painting, there is room enough for them all

, and therefore the statues, architecture, and the other works of art that old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws proare more curious than useful. Hence the natural tect them sufficiently, so that they have no need of the geniuses that have arisen in America, with such talents, patronage of great men; and every one will enjoy sehave uniformly quitted that country for Europe, where curely the profits of his industry. “But if he does not they can be more suitably rewarded. It is true that bring a fortune with him, he must work and be indusletters and mathematical knowledge are in esteem there, trious to live. One or two years' residence give him all but they are at the same time more common than is the rights of a citizen; but the government does not at apprehended; there being already existing nine colleges, present, whatever it may have done in former times, or universities, namely, four in New England, and one hire people to become settlers, by paying their passage, in each of the provinces of New York, New Jersey, giving land, negroes, utensils, stock, or any other kind Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia—all furnished of emolument whatsoever. In short, America is the with learned professors; besides a number of smaller land of labour; and by no means what the English call academies: these educate many of their youth in the Lubberland, and the French Pays de Cocagne, where languages, and those sciences that qualify men for the the streets are said to be paved with half-peck loaves, professions of divinity, law, or physic. Strangers, in the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls deed, are by no means excluded from exercising those fly about ready roasted, crying, “ Come eat me!” professions; and the quick increase of inhabitants every Who, then, are the kind of persons to whom an emi. where gives them a chance of employ, which they have gration to America may be advantageous !and what in common with the natives. Of civil offices or employ- are the advantages they may reasonably expect! ments, there are few; no superfluous ones, as in Europe; Land being cheap in that country, from the vast and it is a rule established in some of the States that forests still void of inhabitants, and not likely to be ocno office should be so profitable as to make it desirable. cupied in an age to come, insomuch that the property The thirty-sixth article of the constitution of Pennsyl- of a hundred acres of fertile soil, full of wood, may be vania runs expressly in these words :—“As every free-obtained near the frontiers, in many places, for eight man, to preserve his independence (if he has not a or ten guineas, hearty young labouring men, who unsufficient estate), ought to have some profession, calling, derstand the husbandry of corn and cattle, which is trade, or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there nearly the same in that country as in Europe, may can be no necessity for, nor use in establishing, offices easily establish themselves there. A little money, of profit, the usual effects of which are dependence saved off the good wages they receive there while they and servility unbecoming freemen, in the possessors work for others, enables them to buy the land and he and expectants—faction, contention, corruption, and gin their plantation, in which they are assisted by the disorder, among the people. Wherefore, whenever an good will of their neighbours, and some credit. Multioffice, through increase of fees or otherwise, becomes tudes of poor people from England, Ireland, Scotland, so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it, the and Germany, have, by this means, in a few years beprofits ought to be lessened by the legislature." come wealthy farmers, who in their own countries,

These ideas prevailing more or less in all the United where all the lands are fully occupied, and the wages States, it cannot be worth any man’s while, who has a of labour low, could never have emerged from the means of living at home, to expatriate himself in hopes mean condition wherein they were born. of obtaining a profitable civil office in America ; and From the salubrity of the air, the healthiness of the as to military offices, they are at an end with the war, climate, the plenty of good provisions, and the encouthe armies being disbanded. Much less is it advisable ragement to early marriages, by the certainty of subfor a person to go thither, who has no other quality to sistence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inharecommend him than his birth. In Europe it has in-bitants by natural generation is very rapid in America, deed its value; but it is a commodity that cannot be and becomes still more so by the accession of strangers : carried to a worse market than to that of America, hence there is a continual demand for more artizans where people do not inquire concerning a stranger, “What is he?” but “ What can he do?" If he has

Merely to cat up the corn.-WATTS.


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