Imatges de pÓgina



your rashness.


this or that move, and attack this or the other piece, Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others play, and what different means can be used to avoid his observe the most perfect silence. For if you give adstroke, or turn its consequences against him.

vice, you offend both parties; him against whom you 3. Caution, not to make our moves too hastily. give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; and This habit is best acquired by observing strictly the him in whose favour you give it, because, though it be laws of the game, such as “ If you touch a piece, you good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might must move it somewhere; if you set it down, you must have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had let it stand ;” and it is therefore best that these rules occurred to himself. Even after a move, or moves, you should be observed, as the game more becomes the must not, by replacing the pieces, show how they might image of human life, and particularly of war ; in which, have been placed better; for that displeases, and may if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attenleave to withdraw your troops, and place them more tion, and it is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you securely, but you must abide all the consequences of give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise

or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a specAnd, lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being tator. If you have a mind to exercise or show your discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, have an opportunity-not in criticising, or meddling and that of persevering in the search of resources. The with, or counselling the play of others. game is so full of events, there is such a variety of Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden according to the rules above mentioned, then moderate vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contem: your desire of victory over your adversary, and be plation, discovers the means of extricating one's self pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inattenencouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hope tion, but point out to him kindly, that by such a move of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a stale he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsupported; mate, by the negligence of our adversary. And who- that by another he will put his king in a perilous situaever considers—what in chess he often sees instances tion, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the of-that particular pieces of success are apt to produce unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too what is better--his esteem, his respect, and his affection; much discouraged by the present success of his adver-together with the silent approbation and good-will of sary, nor to despair of final good fortune, upon every impartial spectators. little check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others which are not attended with the same advan- THE ART OF PROCURING PLEASANT tages, every circumstance which may increase the

DREAMS. pleasure of it should be regarded; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way

BEING WRITTEN AT HER REQUEST. may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary As a great part of our life is spent in sleep, during to the immediate intention of both the players, which which we have sometimes pleasing and sometimes painis to pass the time agreeably.

ful dreams, it becomes of some consequence to obtain Therefore, first, If it is agreed to play according to the one kind, and avoid the other; for whether real or the strict rules, then those rules are to be exactly imaginary, pain is pain, and pleasure is pleasure. If observed by both parties, and should not be insisted we can sleep without dreaming, it is well that painful on for one side, while deviated from by the other-dreams are avoided. If, while we sleep, we can have for this is not equitable.

any pleasing dreams, it is, as the French say, tant gagné, Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules so much added to the pleasure of life. exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should To this end it is, in the first place, necessary to be then be as willing to allow them to the other.

careful in preserving health, by due exercise and great Thirdly, No false move should ever be made to ex- temperance; for in sickness the imagination is districate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advan- turbed, and disagreeable, sometimes terrible, ideas are tage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a apt to present themselves. Exercise should precede person once detected in such unfair practices.

meals, not immediately follow them : the first promotes, Fourthly, If your adversary is long in playing, you the latter, unless moderate, obstructs digestion. If ought not to hurry him, or to express any uneasiness after exercise we feed sparingly, the digestion will be at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor easy and good, the body lightsome, the temper cheerlook at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor ful, and all the animal functions performed agreeably. make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with Sleep, when it follows, will be natural and undisturbed : your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may while indolence, with full feeding, occasions nightmares disturb his attention. For all these things displease; and horrors inexpressible--we fall from precipices, and they do not show your skill in playing, but your are assaulted by wild beasts, murderers, and demons, craftiness or your rudeness.

and experience every variety of distress. Observe, Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and however, that the quantities of food and exercise are deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made relative things; those who move much may, and indeed had moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, ought, to eat more: those who use little exercise, should in order to make him secure and careless, and inatten- eat little. In general, mankind, since the improvement tive to your schemes; for this is fraud and deceit, not of cookery, eat about twice as much as nature requires. skill in the game.

Suppers are not bad, if we have not dined; but restless Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a vic-niglits naturally follow hearty suppers, after full dintory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor ners. Indeed, as there is a difference in constitutions, show too much pleasure; but endeavour to console some rest well after these meals; it costs them only your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied with frightful dream and an apoplexy, after which they himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be sleep till doomsday. Nothing is more common in the used with truth: such as, “ You understand the game newspapers than instances of people, who, after eating better than 1, but you are a little inattentive;" or, “You a hearty supper, are found dead a-bed in the morning. play too fast;" or, “ You had the best of the game, but Another means of preserving health, to be attended something happened to divert your thoughts, and that to, is the having a constant supply of fresh air in your turned it in my favour.”

bed-chamber. It has been a great mistake, the sleep.


55 ing in rooms exactly closed, and in beds surrounded Here then is one great and general cause of unby curtains. No outward air that may come into pleasing dreams—for when the body is uneasy, the you, is so unwholesome as the unchanged air, often mind will be disturbed by it, and disagreeable ideas of breathed, of a close chamber. As boiling water does various kinds will, in sleep be the natural consenot grow hotter by longer boiling, if the particles that quences. The remedies, preventive and curative, receive greater heat can escape, so living bodies do follow : not putrify, if the particles, as fast as they become 1. By eating moderately, as before advised for putrid, can be thrown off. Nature expels them by the health's sake, less perspirable matter is produced in a pores of the skin and lungs, and in a free open air given time; hence the bed-clothes receive it longer they are carried off; but in a close room we receive before they are saturated, and we may therefore sleep them again and again, though they become more and longer before we are made uneasy by their refusing more corrupt. A number of persons crowded into a to receive any more. small room thus spoil the air in a few minutes, and 2. By using thinner and more porous bed-clothes, even render it mortal, as in the Black Hole at Calcutta. which will suffer the perspirable matter more easily A single person is said only to spoil a gallon of air per to pass through them, we are less incommoded, such minute, and therefore requires a longer time to spoil a being longer tolerable. chamberful; but it is done, however, in proportion, 3. When you are awakened by this uneasiness, and and many putrid disorders have hence their origin. It find you cannot easily sleep again, get out of bed, beat is recorded of Methusalem, who, being the longest liver, up and turn your pillow, shake the bed-clothes well, may be supposed to have best preserved his health, with at least twenty shakes, then throw the bed open, that he slept always in the open air; for when he had and leave it to cool; in the meanwhile, continuing unlived five hundred years, an angel said to him, “ Arise, drest, walk about your chamber till your skin has had Methusalem, and build thee an house, for thou shalt time to discharge its load, which it will do sooner as live yet five hundred years longer.” But Methusalem the air may be drier and colder. When you begin to answered and said, “ If I am to live but five hundred feel the cold air unpleasant, then return to your bed, years longer, it is not worth while to build me an and you will soon fall asleep, and your sleep will be house--I will sleep in the open air as I have been used sweet and pleasant-all the scenes presented to your to do.” Physicians, after having for ages contended fancy will be of the pleasing kind. I am often as that the sick should not be indulged with fresh air, agreeably entertained with them, as by the scenery of have at length discovered that it may do them good. an opera. If you happen to be too indolent to get out It is therefore to be hoped, that they may in time dis- of bed, you may, instead of it, lift up your bed-clothes cover likewise that it is not hurtful to those who are with one arm and leg, so as to draw in a good deal of in health; and that we may then be cured of the aëro- fresh air, and by letting them fall, force it out again; phobia that at present distresses weak minds, and makes this repeated twenty times, will so clear them of the them choose to be stifled and poisoned, rather than perspirable matter they have imbibed, as to permit leave open the window of a bed-chamber, or put down your sleeping well for some time afterwards. But this the glass of a coach.

latter method is not equal to the former. Confined air, when saturated with perspirable mat- Those who do not love trouble, and can afford to ter,* will not receive more; and that matter must re- have two beds, will find great luxury in rising, when main in our bodies, and occasion diseases : but it gives they wake in a hot bed, and going into the cool one. some previous notice of its being about to be hurtful, Such shifting of beds would also be of great service to by producing certain uneasiness, slight indeed at first, persons ill of a fever, as it refreshes, and frequently such as with regard to the lungs a trifling sensation, procures sleep. A very large bed, that will admit a and to the pores of the skin a kind of restlessness which removal so distant from the first situation as to be is difficult to describe; and few that feel it know the cool and sweet, may in a degree answer the same end. cause of it. But we may recollect, that sometimes, on One or two observations more will conclude this waking in the night, we have, if warmly covered, found little piece. Care must be taken when you lie down, it difficult to get to sleep again. We turn often, without to dispose your pillow so as to suit your manner of finding repose in any position. This fidgettiness—to use placing your head, and to be perfectly easy; then place a vulgar expression for want of a better-is occasioned your limbs so as not to bear inconveniently hard upon wholly by an uneasiness in the skin, owing to the re- one another-as, for instance, the joints of your ancles tention of the perspirable matter--the bed-clothes hav--for though a bad position may at first give but little ing received their quantity, and, being saturated, re- pain, and be hardly noticed, yet a continuance will fusing to take any more. To become sensible of this render it less tolerable, and the uneasiness may come by an experiment, let a person keep his position in on you while you are asleep, and disturb your imagithe bed, but throw off the bed-clothes, and suffer fresh nation. air to approach the part uncovered of his body: he These are the rules of the art. But though they will then feel that part suddenly refreshed; for the will generally prove effectual in producing the end inair will immediately relieve the skin, by receiving, tended, there is a case in which the most punctual licking up, and carrying off, the load of perspirable observance of them will be totally fruitless. I need matter that incommoded it. For every portion of cool not mention the case to you, my dear friend; but my air that approaches the warm skin, in receiving its account of the art would be imperfect without it. The part of that vapour, receives therewith a degree of case is, when the person who desires to have the pleaheat that rarefies and renders it lighter, when it will sant dreams has not taken care to preserve, what is be pashed away with its burden by cooler, and there necessary above all things-A GOOD CONSCIENCE. fore heavier, fresh air, which for a moment supplies its place, and then, being likewise changed and warmed, gives way to a succeeding quantity. This is the order

ADVICE TO A YOUNG TRADESMAN. of nature, to prevent animals being infected by their

WRITTEN IN THE YEAR 1748. own perspiration. He will now be sensible of the difference between the part exposed to the air, and that

To my Friend, 4, B. which, remaining sunk in the bed, denies the air ac- As you have desired it of me, I write the following cess; for this part now manifests its uneasiness more hints, which have been of service to me, and may, if distinctly by the comparison, and the seat of the un observed, be so to you :easiness is more plainly perceived than when the whole Remember that time is money. He that can earn surface of the body was affected by it.

ten shillings a-day by his labour, and goes abroad, or * What physicians call the perspirable matter, is that vapour sixpence during his diversion or idleness, ought not to

sits idle one-half of that day, though he spends but the pores of the skin. The quantity of this is said to be five- reckon that the only expense; he has really spent, or eighihs of what we eat.

rather thrown away, five shillings besides.

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IIINTS TO THOSE THAT WOULD BE RICH. Remember that credit is money. If a man lets his He that wastes idly a groat's worth of his time per money lie in my hands after it is due, he gives me the day, one day with another, wastes the privilege of using interest, or so much as I can make of it during that one hundred pounds each day. time. This amounts to a considerable sum where a He that idly loses five shillings worth of time, loses man has good and large credit, and makes good use five shillings, and might as prudently throw five shilof it.

lings into the sea. Remember that money is of a prolific generating He that loses five shillings, not only loses that sum, nature. Money can beget money, and its offspring can but all the advantages that might be made by turning beget more, and so on. Five shillings turned is six; it in dealing ; which, by the time that a young man beturned again it is seven and threepence: and so on till comes old, will amount to a considerable sum of money. it becomes a hundred pounds. The more there is of it, Again: he that sells upon credit, asks a price for the more it produces every turning, so that the profits what he sells equivalent to the principal and interest rise quicker and quicker. He that kills a breeding of his money for the time he is to be kept out of it; sow, destroys all her offspring to the thousand genera- therefore, he that buys upon credit, pays interest for tion. He that murders a crown, destroys all that it what he buys; and he that pays ready money, might might have produced, even scores of pounds.

let that money out to use; so that he that possesses Remember that six pounds a-year is but a groat a- any thing he has bought, pays interest for the use of it. day. For this little sum (which may be daily wasted Yet in buying goods, it is best to pay ready money, either in time or expense, unperceived) a man of credit because, he that sells upon credit, expects to lose five may, on his own security, have the constant possession per cent. by bad debts; therefore he charges, on all and use of a hundred pounds. So much in stock, he sells upon credit, an advance that shall make up briskly turned by an industrious man, produces great that deficiency. advantage.

Those who pay for what they buy upon credit, pay Remember this saying—" The good paymaster is their share of this advance. lord of another man's purse.” He that is known to He that pays ready money escapes, or may escape, pay punctually and exactly to the time he promises, may that charge. at any time, and on any occasion, raise all the money

A penny saved is twopence clear; his friends can spare. This is sometimes of great use.

A pin a-day 's a groat a-year. After industry and frugality, nothing contributes more to the raising of a young man in the world than punctuality and justice in all his dealings: therefore never THE WAY TO MAKE MONEY PLENTY IN keep borrowed money an hour beyond the time you

EVERY MAN'S POCKET. promised, lest a disappointment shut up your friend's At this time, when the general complaint is that purse for ever.

“money is scarce," it will be an act of kindness to inThe most trifling actions that affect a man's credit form the moneyless how they may reinforce their pockets. are to be regarded. The sound of your hammer at five I will acquaint them with the true secret of money, in the morning, or nine at night, heard by a creditor, catching—the certain way to fill empty purses and makes him easy six months longer; but if he sees you how to keep them always full. Two simple rules, well at a billiard table, or hears your voice at a tavern, observed, will do the business. when you should be at work, he sends for his money First, Let honesty and industry be thy constant comthe next day; demands it before he can receive it in a panions; and, lump.

Second, Spend one penny less than thy clear gains. It shows, besides, that you are mindful of what you Then shall thy hide-bound pocket soon begin to thrive, owe ; it makes you appear a careful as well as an ho- and shall never again cry with the empty belly-ache: nest man, and that still increases your credit.

neither will creditors insult thee, nor want oppress, nor Beware of thinking all your own that you possess, hunger bite, nor nakedness freeze thee. The whole and of living accordingly. It is a mistake that many hemisphere will shine brighter, and pleasure spring up people who have credit fall into.

To prevent this, in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace keep an exact account, for some time, both of your ex- these rules, and be happy. Banish the bleak winds of penses and your income.. If you take the pains at first sorrow from thy mind, and live independent. Then to mention particulars, it will have this good effect; shalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the apyou will discover how wonderfully small trifling ex- proach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feeling little penses mount up to large sums, and will discern what when the sons of fortune walk at thy right hand, for might have been, and may for the future be saved, independency, whether with little or much, is good for. without occasioning any great inconvenience.

tune, and placeth thee on even ground with the proudest In short, the way to wealth, if you desire it, is as of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let inplain as the way to market. It depends chiefly on two dustry walk with thee in the morning, and attend thee words, industry and frugality; that is, waste neither until thou reachest the evening hour for rest! Let time nor money, but make the best use of both. With honesty be as the breath of thy soul, and never forget out industry and frugality nothing will do, and with to have a penny, when all thy expenses are enumerated them every thing. He that gets all he can honestly, and paid ; then shalt thou reach the point of happiness, and saves all he gets (necessary expenses excepted), and independence shall be thy shield and buckler, thy will certainly become rich—if that Being who governs helmet and crown; then shall thy soul walk upright, the world, to whom all should look for a blessing on nor stoop to the silken wretch because he hath riches, their honest endeavours, doth not in his wise provi- nor pocket an abuse because the hand which offers it dence otherwise determine, AN OLD TRADESMAN,

wears a ring set with diamonds !



A translation of this Letter appeared in one of the daily papers

of Paris, about the year 1784. The following is the original piece, The use of money is all the advantage there is in hav- with some additions ard corrections made by the author :ing money.

To the Authors of the Journal. For six pounds a-year you may have the use of one hundred pounds, provided you are a man of known MESSIEURS—You often entertain us with accounts of prudence and honesty.

new discoveries. Permit me to communicate to the He that spends a groat a-day idly, spends idly above public, through your paper, one that has lately been six pounds a-year, which is the price for tlie use of one made by myself, and which I conceive may be of great hundred pounds.




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AN ECONOMICAL PROJECT. I was the other evening in a grand company, where | day as the medium quantity between the time of the the new lamp of Messrs Quinquet and Lange was intro- sun's rising and ours—he rising during the six followduced, and much admired for its splendour; but a gene- ing months from six to eight hours before noon, and ral inquiry was made, whether the oil it consumed was there being seven hours of course per night in which not in proportion to the light it afforded, in which case we burn candles the account will stand thus :there would be no saving in the use of it. No one present could satisfy us on that point, which all agreed In the six months between the 20th of March and the ought to be known, it being a very desirable thing to Hours of each night in which we burn

183 lessen, if possible, the expense of lighting our apartments, when every other article of family expense was


7 so much augmented. I was pleased to see this general concern for eco

Multiplication gives for the total number nomy, for I love economy exceedingly.

of hours

1,281 I went home, and to bed, three or four hours after These 1281 hours multiplied by 100,000, midnight, with my head full of the subject. An acci

the number of inhabitants given, 128,100,000 dental sudden noise waked me about six in the morning, One hundred and twenty-eight millions when I was surprised to find my room filled with light,

and one hundred thousand hours spent and I imagined at first, that a number of those lamps

at Paris by candle-light, which at half had been brought into it'; but rubbing my eyes, I per

a pound of wax and tallow per hour, ceived that the light came in at the windows. I got up,

gives the weight of

64,050,000 and looked out to see what might be the occasion of it, Sixty-four millions and fifty thousand of when I saw the sun just rising above the horizon, from

pounds, which, estimating the whole at whence he poured his rays plentifully into my chamber

the medium price of thirty sols the --my domestic having negligently omitted the preced

pound, makes the sum of ninety-six ing evening to close the shutters.

millions and seventy-five thousand livres I looked at my watch, which goes very well, and


96,075,000 found that it was about six o'clock; and still thinking An immense sum that the city of Paris might save it something extraordinary that the sun should rise every year, by the economy of using sunshine instead so early, I looked into the almanack, where I found of candles ! it to be the hour given for his rising on that day. I If it should be said, that people are apt to be oblooked forward too, and found he was to rise still earlier stinately attached to old customs, and that it will be every day till towards the end of June; and that at no difficult to induce them to rise before noon, consetime in the year he retarded his rising so long as till quently my discovery can be of little use, I answer, eight o'clock. Your readers, who with me have never Nil desperandum. I believe all who have common seen any signs of sunshine before noon, and seldom sense, as soon as they have learnt from this paper regard the astronomical part of the almanack, will be that it is day-light when the sun rises, will contrive to as much astonished as I was when they hear of his rise with him; and, to compel the rest, I would prorising so early; and especially when I assure them, pose the following regulations :that he gives light as soon as he rises. I am convinced First, Let a tax be laid of a louis per window, on of this : I am certain of my fact. One cannot be more every window that is provided with shutters to keep certain of any fact: I saw it with my own eyes. And out the light of the sun. having repeated this observation the three following Second, Let the same salutary operation of police mornings, I found always precisely the same result. be made use of to prevent our burning candles, that

Yet it so happens, that when I speak of this discovery inclined us last winter to be more economical in burnto others, I can easily perceive by their countenances, ing wood; that is, let guards be placed in the shops of though they forbear expressing it in words, that they the wax and tallow chandlers, and no family be perdo not quite believe me. One, indeed, who is a learned mitted to be supplied with more than one pound of natural philosopher, has assured me, that I must cer- candles per week. tainly be mistaken as to the circumstance of the light Third, Let guards also be posted to stop all the coming into my room ; for it being well known, as he coaches, &c. that would pass the streets after sunset, says, that there could be no light abroad at that hour, except those of physicians, surgeons, and midwives. it follows that none could enter from without; and that Fourth, Every morning, as soon as the sun rises, let of consequence, my windows being accidentally left all the bells in every church be set a-ringing; and if open, instead of letting in the light, had only served to that is not sufficient, let cannon be fired in every street, let out the darkness : and he used many ingenious argu- to wake the slaggards effectually, and make them open ments to show me how I might, by that means, have their eyes to see their true interest. been deceived. I own that he puzzled me a little, but All the difficulty will be in the first two or threo he did not satisfy me: and the subsequent observations days, after which the reformation will be as natural I made as above mentioned, confirmed me in my first and easy as the present irregularity; for ce n'est que le opinion.

premier pas qui coute. Oblige a man to rise at four in This event has given rise, in my mind, to several the morning, and it is more than probable he shall go serious and important reflections. I considered that, willingly to bed at eight in the evening; and, having if I had not been awakened so early in the morning, I had eight hours' sleep, he will rise more willingly at should have slept six hours longer by the light of the four the following morning. But this sum of ninetysun, and in exchange have lived six hours the following six millions and seventy-five thousand livres, is not the night by candle-light; and the latter being a much whole of what may be saved by my economical project. more expensive light than the former, my love of eco- You may observe, that I have calculated upon only one nomy induced me to muster up what little arithmetic I half of the year, and much may be saved in the other, was master of, and to make some calculations, which I though the days are shorter. Besides, the immense shall give you, after observing that utility is, in my stock of wax and tallow left anconsumed during the opinion, the test of value in matters of invention, and summer, will probably make candles much cheaper for that a discovery which can be applied to no use, or is the ensuing winter, and continue cheaper as long as not good for something, is good for nothing.

the proposed reformation shall be supported. I took for the basis of my calculation the supposition For the great benefit of this discovery, thus freely that there are 100,000 families in Paris, and that these communicated and bestowed by me on the public, I families consume in the night half a pound of bougies, demand neither place, pension, exclusive privilege, nor or candles, per hour. I think this is a moderate allow- any other reward whatever. I expect only to have ance, taking one family with another; for though I be- the honour of it. And yet I know there are little en. lieve some consume less, I know that many consume a vious minds who will, as usual, deny me this, and say great deal more. Then, estimating seven hours per that my invention was known to the ancients, and per



SKETCII OF AN ENGLISH SCHOOL. haps they may bring passages out of the old books in or the scope of the piece, the meaning of each sentence, proof of it. I will not dispute with these people that and of every uncommon word. This would early acthe ancients knew not the sun would rise at certain quaint them with the meaning and force of words, and hours; they possibly had, as we have, almanacks that give them that most necessary habit of reading with predicted it: but it does not follow from thence, that attention. they knew he gave light as soon as he rose. This is The master then to read the piece with the proper what I claim as my discovery. If the ancients knew modulations of voice, due emphasis, and suitable action, it, it must have been long since forgotten, for it cer- where action is required, and put the youth on imitattainly was unknown to the moderns, at least to the ing his manner. Parisians; which to prove, I need but use one plain Where the author has used an expression not the simple argument. They are as well instructed, judi- best, let it be pointed out, and let his beauties be parcious, and prudent a people as exist any where in the ticularly remarked to the youth. world, all professing, like myself, to be lovers of eco- Let the lessons for reading be varied, that the youth nomy; and from the many heavy taxes required from may be made acquainted with good styles of all kinds them by the necessities of the state, have surely reason in prose and verse, and the proper manner of reading to be economical. I say, it is impossible that so sen- each kind—sometimes a well-told story, a piece of a sible a people, under such circumstances, should have sermon, a general's speech to his soldiers, a speech in lived so long by the smoky, unwholesome, and enor- a tragedy, some part of a comedy, an ode, a satire, a mously expensive light of candles, if they had really letter, blank verse, Hudibrastic, heroic, &c. But let known that they might have had as much pure light of such lessons be chosen for reading as contain some the sun for nothing. I am, &c. AN ABONNE useful instruction, whereby the understanding or morals

of the youth may at the same time be improved.

It is required that they should first study and un

derstand the lessons, before they are put upon reading SKETCH OF AN ENGLISH SCHOOL. them properly; to which end each boy should have an FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE

English dictionary, to help him over difficulties. When our boys read English to us, we are apt to imagine

they understand what they read, because we do, and It is expected, that every scholar to be admitted into because it is their mother tongue; but they often read this school be at least able to pronounce and divide the as parrots speak, knowing little or nothing of the syllables in reading, and to write a legible hand. None meaning. And it is impossible a reader should give to be received that are under years of age.

the due modulation to his voice, and pronounce proFIRST, OR Lowest Class.—Let the first class learn perly, unless his understanding goes before his tongue, the English grammar rules, and, at the same time, let and makes him master of the sentiment. Accustoming particular care be taken to improve them in ortho- boys to read aloud what they do not first understand, graphy. Perhaps the latter is best done by pairing is the cause of those even set tones so common among the scholarstwo of those nearest equal in their spell readers, which, when they have once got a habit of ing to be put together. Let these strive for victory, using, they find so difficult to correct; by which means, each propounding ten words every day to the other to among fifty readers we scarcely find a good one. For be spelled. He that spells truly most of the other's want of good reading, pieces published with a view to words, is victor for that day—he that is victor most influence the minds of men, for their own or the public days in a month to obtain a prize, a pretty neat book benefit, lose half their force. Were there but one good of some kind, useful in their future studies. This reader in a neighbourhood, a public orator might be method fixes the attention of children extremely to the heard throughout a nation with the same advantages, orthography of words, and makes them good spellers and have the same effect upon his audience, as if they very early. It is a shame for a man to be so ignorant stood within the reach of his voice. of this little art, in his own language, as to be perpe- The Third Class—To be taught speaking properly tually confounding words of like sound, and different and gracefully; which is near akin to good reading, and significations the consciousness of which defect makes naturally follows it in the studies of youth. Let the some men, otherwise of good learning and understand scholars of this class begin with learning the elements ing, averse to writing even a common letter.

of rhetoric from some short system, so as to be able to Let the pieces read by the scholars in this class be give an account of the most useful tropes and figures. short-such as Croxal's fables, and little stories. In Let all their bad habits of speaking, all offences against giving the lesson, let it be read to them; let the mean- good grammar, all corrupt or foreign accents, and all ing of the difficult words in it be explained to them; improper phrases, be pointed out to them. Short and let them con it over by themselves before they are speeches from the Roman or other history, or from the called to read to the master or usher, who is to take parliamentary debates, might be got by heart, and departicular care that they do not read too fast, and that livered with the proper action, &c. Speeches and they duly observe the stops and pauses. A vocabulary scenes in our best tragedies and comedies (avoiding of the most usual difficult words might be formed for every thing that could injure the morals of youth) their use, with explanations; and they might daily get might likewise be got by rote, and the boys exercised a few of these words and explanations by heart, which in delivering or acting them--great care being taken would a little exercise their memories; or at least they to form their manner after the truest models. might write a number of them in a small book for that For their farther improvement, and a little to vary purpose, which would help to fix the meaning of those their studies, let them now begin to read history, after words in their minds, and at the same time furnish having got by heart a short table of the principal every one with a little dictionary for his future use. epochs in chronology. They may begin with Rollin's

THE SECOND CLASS—To be taught reading with at- ancient and Roman histories, and proceed at proper tention, and with proper modulations of the voice, ac- hours, as they go through the subsequent classes, with cording to the sentiment and the subject.

the best histories of our own nation and colonies. Let Some short pieces, not exceeding the length of a emulation be excited among the boys, by giving weekly Spectator, to be given this class for lessons; and some little prizes, or other small encouragements, to those of the easier Spectators would be very suitable for the who are able to give the best account of what they have purpose. These lessons might be given every night as read, as to times, places, names of persons, &c. This tasks—the scholars to study them against the morning. will make them read with attention, and imprint the Let it then be required of them to give an account, history well in their memories. In remarking on the first, of the parts of speech, and construction of one or history, the master will have fine opportunities of intwo sentences. This will oblige them to recur fre- stilling instruction of various kinds, and improving the quently to their grammar, and fix its principal rules morals as well as the understandings of youth. in their memory. Next. of the intention of the writer, The natural and mechanic history contained in the

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