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“In fine, an hereditary Peerage is only a support to the Crown when it dominates and overrules it. In this manner, an hereditary Aristocracy certainly surrounds the throne, it envelopes-it besieges it: it renders it the instrument of its will: it is, as we have said, the Aristocracy which reigns, and France will never consent to the arbitrary sway of an Aristocracy.”
We regret that we cannot find space for farther extracts from this speech; but we earnestly invite the attention of our countrymen to the whole of this grand and memorable discussion.
It can hardly be expected on a question which has divided men the most remarkable for their liberal feelings and enlightenment --a question which embraces the consideration not only of general principles of policy, but of local facts of social organization, that we should give a decided-which would be a presumptuous--opinion. This, however, we may gather from the hoarded wisdom, the practical experience, the concurrent testimony of all—that a chamber of Peers, hereditary or otherwise, cannot exist as a certain number of isolated individuals representing their own feelings, their own interests only. In order to have power, they must represent power : ini order to fill their post in the state, they must be the collection and the representation of popular superiority. Nor is this all; to prevent a division between them and the nation at large, there must be somewhere or other a connecting power; a power which shall keep the nobility and the people together by making, as occasion shall require, patricians of those who have the people's feelings. We are not against an Aristocracy; but we say that popularity is the condition of its existence. We are not againsi an aristocratic chamber, but we say it must represent the national sense of the people. We can appeal to our own ancient Aristocracy-warlike, when the genius of this country was for war. To the Aristocracy of Rometo the Aristocracy of Venice-to every great Aristocracy that ever existed. While these words escape us, History is chronicling their illustration : while we are referring to the past, the present is an example, and offers—may God so grant it! a warning for the future. The existing hatred to the French nobility, what is its cause but their former crimes ? The destruction of the hereditary Peerage in France, by what was it fixed and decided ? an unpopular act of the hereditary Peerage of England !
Silon. The amendment of M. de Mosbourg recognizes and adopts our principle by confining the exercise of King's prerogative to those who shall have obtained the honours, and deserved the approbation of their fellow-citizens.
CHOLERA MORBUS DISARMED. Observations on the Cholera Morbus, in a letter to Dr. Alessandro Uccelli, Phy: sician and Surgeon of the Russian Ship of War Mercury, addressed to his Father, Professor Philippo Uccelli, of Florence, and dated Sevastopol, (capital of the Crimea) 5th May 1831 ; translated from the Italian by John Robert Steuart, F.R.S. Member of the Royal Asiatic Society of London and Literary Society of Bombay.
Having been lately a resident in the Italian States, where a lively apprehension of the invasion of the Cholera Morbus very generally prevails, and my friends there being aware that I had lived many years in India, and was familiar with the symptoms of that disease and the mode of its treatment, having myself suffered under it, and having occasionally seen cases of it in my own house, besides constantly hearing of it on all sides, I was frequently requested to communicate such information as I was able afford, respecting a disease, until now, totally unknown in the South of Europe.
The subject came thus to engage a considerable share of my thoughts, and having
been one day accidentally detained in Pisa, I happened, in strolling about, to see advertised in a bookseller's shop, a small tract entitled “ Observations on the Cholera Morbus," which had just then been published in Florence. Anxious to know what could be said on this subject by an Italian physician, I purchased the tract and carried it home for perusal.
Great was my surprise and pleasure to find that it contained an easy, simple, and approved method of cure for this invidious malady, the principle of the cure being at the same time in perfect accordance with the practice and aim of many of the most experienced physicians in India. Besides its own advantages, it has the peculiar one of not precluding the employment of other remedies, should medical professors, with a laudable precaution, still adhere to the system which their experience and study may have taught them to regard as the most efficacious in the cure of this malignant distemper.
Should the practice, so happily introduced into Russia by Dr. Uccelli, prove equally successful in this country, as there is every reason to expect it will, I shall consider myself fortunate in baving been the humble instrument of imparting to my own coun. trymen so invaluable a benefit.
The Epidemical influence of the Cholera Morbus may be said to have been entirely subdued throughout the whole of the Southern Provinces of Russia. This destructive malady, proceeding from India, through Persia, along the shores of the Caspian, appears to be mitigated acrimony as it approaches the North, In Teflis, during the last autumn, 20,000 persons were carried off in fifteen days. In Astrachan, near the mouths of the Volga, 17,000 persons died in half that time : but at Taganrok, as well as in the Crimea, and in New Russia, the epidemic exhibited a less virulent character.
The terror produced by the first appearance of the disease was incredible, and great blame attaches to the physicians, by whose suggestions it is usual for Government to be guided in similar emergencies. Their mode of cure was uncertain, and founded upon no thorough knowledge of the nature of the maladynay, even quarantine regulations were enforced, such as are usually had recourse to in cases of Bubonic plague.
Subsequent observations and facts, have, however, demonstrated (although on this point there are still some sceptics,) that the Cholera Morbus is not, in our latitudes at least, to be communicated by contact, so that less rigor was afterwards observed in the precautionary measures, these being reduced to a few ablutions, by means of a solution of chlorate of lime. Here, at Sevastopol, the chief physician required those who accompanied cholera-patients to the hospitals to employ friction of the above solution; the same precaution he exacted from those who attended on the sick, and from the physicians themselves. I, amongst others, having had occasion to attend in the city more than 2000 patients, can affirm, on my own experience, that this disease does not communicate by contact; I know, moreover, that, in various parts of this empire, where the disease was, and is still, raging, several medical practitioners have had the courage to inoculate themselves, in various forms, with the morbific virus, with the blood drawn from the patients who were most affected, or with the matter vo
* This passage being important, and seeming almost to reflect upon the recent proceedings of the Board of Health in this country, I here give the terms in the original.
“ Indicibile fù il terrore prodotto nel primo apparire della malattia, e di ciò la colpa principale deve attribuirsi ai medici, al parere dei quali il Governo in simili casi deferisce, si la medicatura incerta e sragionata che ne fecero, non conoscendo il fondo della malattia, corre anche perchè nel suo apparire furon prescritte le stesse misure di Quarantine come per la Peste bubbonica.”
To say nothing of the obstruction to all social and commercial intercourse which must ensue from the enforcement of Quarantine regulations, and the expense which of course must devolve on Government in supporting all the poor people thus prevented from earning their bread, it appears to me that the rigid measures contemplated are more likely to propagate than diminish a disease on which the mind exercises so direct an influence: 'A cheerful state of mind, regular occupation, and healthful recreations will go far to resist the encroachments of this malady; but the gloom of confinement, the privations of seclusion, can only generate distrust, alarm, and despondency, the very handmaids, as it were, of the Cholera Morbus.
mited, covering themselves with the garments of the diseased, and yet never contracting the malady.
I grant, however, that in circumstances of this nature, no precautions or sanatory measures can ever be too ample or vigilant: provinces menaced by the approach of so fearful a malady, must attempt to arrest its diffusion by every possible means. Let us, however, forego this discussion, which admits of much to be said on both sides, but does not affect the presence of the awful scourge. The dissections of dead bodies have exhibited extravasations of a dark-coloured liquid in the cavities, and particularly in that of the abdomen or lower belly, resembling the same Auid evacuated in vomiting, and inflammation and gangrene of the intestines, the coats of which appeared, for the most part, ulcerated and overspread with spots of a colour so darkly red as to approach to black. In a few cases, in which death had ensued within two or three hours after the invasion of the disease, the dissection has not exhibited any sensible alteration in the abdominal organs.
This disease being less feared than the plague, physicians have been rather better able to study it with the view of devising a mode of cure ; this they have done without empiricism, it is true, but still with a certain confusion in the indications, and a certain mixture of antiphlogistics and stimulants, the result of their favourite ideas of nervous spasm and indirect debility. On the first invasion of the disease, they frequenily commenced with bleeding and bathing; to these were added laudanum or sulphuric ather in a dose of 40, 60, or more drops, as a calmative; next an antispasmodic draught with 15 grains of camphor as a sedative for the cholic pains, or linden-flower water, with a mixture of Diascordion and Theriacum. Those again, who pursued the so terined English plan, gave calomel with opium, in doses of 10, 15, and 20 grains at a time every two or three hours ? 'Whatever else miglit arise out of this chaos of conflicting remedies, strength of constitution, or some salutary one among so many opposite remedies, may have slightly diminished the number of victims; still, here in the Crimea, as well as in New Russia, the mortality has been as high as 30, 40, and even 50 per 100. You may readily suppose that I, an elève of your school, and that of the illustrious Tommanni of Bologna, where I imbibed principles directly opposed to the above practice, must have deviated from such a course, though pursued by the generality of physicians in the treatment of this disease; the system I adopted was one in accordance with our ideas of pathology, and my practice was crowned with the most complete success, for amongst upwards of 2000 patients who were under my care, the mortality never exceeded 8 or 9 per 100, and these were principally cases to which I had been called in late, and in which the disease had consequently made considerable progress.
Now, as the proximate causes were intemperance, and the abuse of spiritous drinks, (to which in this country the lower classes are most fearfully addicted,) together with suppressed transpiration, the indication which I had principally and constantly in view was to promote a determination to the skin, by means of the most abundant perspiration; this I usually accomplished by applying very hot fomentations, bathing, frictions, &c. and in the majority of cases, I had the satisfaction to see this course succeed, without requiring the aid of any other remedy save some acidulated beverage. But that which, above all, was attended with the happiest results, was the use of the vapour, or steam-bath, hy means of the apparatus invented by Professor Assalini,* which I had seen employed under your direction, with the most complete success, in many very desperate maladies. Of these machines I caused a number sufficient for my purpose to be constructed, introducing some few modifications, for their more ready and economical application.
• The Chevalier Assalini is favourably known in this country, from his many ingenious improvements in surgical instruments, which procured him the honour of a medal from the Society of Arts. He now superintends the Royal Hospital at Catania, in which city I have frequently had the pleasure of benefiting by his agreeable and instructive conversation ; it is as flattering to me, as I am sure it will be gratifying to bim, to think that the utility of his inventions is likely to be extended by my humble mediation.- Nole of Translator.
The principal alteration consists in having two tin recipients introduced along the internal sides of the steaming case. One of these serves for the purpose of containing warm water, which by means of a tube (the valve or cock of which the patient can open and shut at pleasure) may be made to fall from the recipient, drop by drop, on heated blocks of iron, contained in a box, placed under the seat, which is made to move on four rollers.
But as the tendency of steam is always in a vertical, rather than in a horizontal direction, the feet will consequently derive a less degree of heat than the remainder of the body; to counteract this, I caused two bricks, made red hot, to be placed under a stool, on which the feet of the patient rested. The recipient, constructed on the other side, is meant to contain water extremely cold; with this the patient sprinkles his whole body - its instantaneous evaporation tempers the heat of the steam, (whenever this last becomes insupportable,) producing at the same time a most pleasurable sensation.
For the purpose of besprinkling the body, a little bunch of fresh herbs, to be dipped in the cold water, may be used; with this the patient (who all along is enclosed in the apparatus,) strikes his body, in the manner practised in the Russian baths, whereby transpiration is greatly promoted.
Scarcely is the patient well-seated in the bath, (for such this apparatus must be termed, its internal temperature being raised from 30 to 40, 45, and even 50 degrees of Reaumur, equal to 992. 122. 134, and 1451. of Fahrenheit,) when a moist vapour invests his whole frame, and soon a most abundant perspiration causes the vomiting, diarrhea, and cholic, to cease. Returning to his bed, the transpiration continues, and in such abundance as to bathe not only the sheets, but the very mattresses; this is accompanied by a sensation of exquisite pleasure, terminating in sleep, and on his awakening, the patient finds himseif perfectly recovered.
The early success of these baths, and the reputation they acquired in the cure of the cholera morbus, induced me to extend the use of them more generally. It is well known in how many maladies, arising from suppressed perspiration, and in how many chronic affections, the use of the hot bath, by simple immersion, is prescribed ; its application is, indeed, only limited by the difficulties and expense in getting ready and heating the water: now, in using this apparatus, which differs from all other vapour baths, in being easily transportable, all we require is a few bricks, or blocks of iron, to be heated, and a pail of water. Nor is its use confined to the sick alone; it is instrumental in the promotion of personal cleanliness, and in preserving health, as, from time immemorial, has been practised in Russia.
Besides, in the opinion of those who have availed themselves of the machine of Assalini, new as it is in this part of the world, the respiration is in no degree impeded by it, as the head is not included in the bath, but remains out in the - air; different from this are the Russian vapour baths, in which the whole frame is immersed in the steam, the heat of which is frequently so suffocating as to render a continuance in it impracticable. In hæmorrhoidal affections I have also experienced the greatest advantage from the use of the steam-bath; to it I am indebted for my recovery from an attack which was brought on during a tedious cruise, and tormented me during the whole of last winter. Even now, though perfectly recovered, I have recourse to the bath once a week or fortnight, merely as a preservative of health.
Already most of our Naval Commanders, as well as others in this district, have provided themselves with the apparatus, and are enthusiastic in its praises, for success is readily afforded to new and cheap inventions.* Reverting once more to the practice adopted by me in the cure of the Cholera Morbus, I shall observe that in almost every case, indeed, I may say in all, I found that baths of hot water or steam, together with warm fomentations and acidulated beverages, were alone sufficient to effect a cure; in cases, however, of very obstinate vomiting, I was generally enabled to allay the symptoms by means of caustic magnesia in conjunction with oxide of bismuth, (given in small doses and repeated during the day,) or by the draught of Riverius. In the severer cases, and in
Here follow some remarks relative to the pecuniary advantage he expects to derive from the introduction of this apparatus into the Russian dominions. -T.
such as were accompanied with gastric embarrassments, castor oil, or sweet al. mond oil, afforded me no small assistance; in some particular cases I was under the necessity of having recourse to the lancet, to leeches, to doses of nitre, and also to blisters, upon the epigastric region.
Such were the principles which formed the ground-work of my treatment, and I may add, successful treatment, of the cholera morbus.
During convalescence, bitters, magnesia, and the bland oleaginous purgatives, together with a diet, regulated by the state of the patient, completed the cure.
In respect to what is called here the English method of cure, consisting in the : ; exhibition of calomel in large doses, and in conjunction with opium, that is to ! say, 10 and 20 grains at a time, every two hours, I can affirm that I have never seen any absolute necessity for resorting to it. A melancholy case which came before me, gave me a thorough disgust for this practice; the whole of the internal membrane of the mouth having been affected with deep ulcerations, accompa-, nied by numerous other untoward symptoms.
Such are the principal observations on the Cholera Morbus, which I have thought it my duty to communicate, in order to satisfy your enquiries. I shalt is reserve for future publication, supported by such further data as I may acquire, I a more detailed history of this disease, which has unfortunately swept off so many iv victims in this part of the world.t
IND The baths for applying steam may be formed in various manners. The common slipperbath, with a cover of cloth, or stout canvass, over the mouth, will answer the purpose extremely well; the cover must be made with an aperture, and a collar tied round the neck of the patient, so as to admit of the head remaining out of the bath. A simple and 11 cheap steam bath may be constructed of canvass alone, in the following mander: Place two wooden or other common chairs, so that the patient reclines upon one, while his legs rest on the other; let a pole be fastened to the backs of each of the chairs for the support of a frame of stout canvass, which is to enclose the whole ; the lower part of the canvass is to trail on the ground, the upper part is to be kept extended by means of an oblong hoop, and an aperture is left, as above described, to admit of the head or face of the patient remaining out To fill the bath with steam, the mode described in the letter of Dr. Ucelli, may be employed, by introducing a vessel of water, furnished with a tube and stop-cock, so as to admit of the water being made to drop at pleasure upon the hot irons or brick, which will in a very short time generate a sufficiency of steam ; or a closed kettle may be made to boil, and the steam conveyed under! the canvass cover by means of a tube connected with the spout, and furnislied with a ; stop-cock, taking care to lift off the lid of the kettle previous to stopping the course of the steam into the bath. The following will be found an expeditious and easy method :- Let a kettle be made to boil on the kitchen, or any other convenient fire, place it afterwards close to the bath, upon a triangle, over a pan of lighted charcoal, which is to be fanned so as to keep up the boiling; or one or more oil or spirit lamps may be placed under the kettle, for the same purpose.
A short cloth tube or hose, proceeding from the canvass cover, is to be tied fast round the spout of the kettle, for the conveyance of the steam, the course of which can at any time be stopped, by tying a string round the hose, or removing it from the spout of the kettle.
Under the canvass frame may be placed, on a third chair, or stool, a basin of cold water, with a bunch of herbs, or a branch of birch-tree, boxwood, &c. for the purpose of besprinkling the body of the patient, as described in the letter.
Other steam-baths, equally efficacious, but of a more expensive description, are constructed by many of our workers in tin and iron s amongst others, I may mention Mr. Benham, of Wigmore Street.
Mr. Green's Vapour-baths, at his establishment in Great Marlborough Street, Regent Street, appear also to be extremely well adapted for application in the Cholera Morbus.
I should observe, that in order to regulate the heat of the bath, an aperture may easily be contrived in the canvass for admitting the bulb of a common thermometer, without allowing the steam to escape.
J. R. S. Most slipper-baths are furnished with a cock for letting off the water, a connecting tube from this to the boiler, will answer perfectly for introducing the steam.
The English method is perhaps treated here with undue severity, the proportion allowed to have been saved by it is greater than what has been the result in most other places.-T.
+ The letter concludes with a postscript announcing his being ordered to repair to · the Baltic fleet, and he congratulates himself upon being called to assist in mitigating the ravages of the disease on the shores of the Baltic, now that it had been entirely expelled from the district in which he had hitherto been stationed.-T.