INSTITUTES OF METAPHYSIC

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It complies more closely with definition of philosophy than the other
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But a system should be both true and reasoned
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Systems of philosophy are unreasoned
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The present state of philosophy described
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First How is this state to be explained ? Secondly How remedied?
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First it is explained S 1431 by philosophy not being reasoned
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No good can be expected so long as philosophy is not reasoned
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The masks of philosophy
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Its unsatisfactory state further accounted for The globe of speculation
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Explanation continued First principles always come out last
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Illustrations of this from language and grammar
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Illustration continued
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Illustration from logic
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Illustration from law
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Application to philosophy Here too first principles come out last
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These principles though operative in philosophy are unnoticed and un known
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Hence philosophy is nowhere a scheme reasoned throughout
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The repudiation of necessary truths a further retarding cause
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What necessary truth
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Its criterion is the law of contradiction Law explained
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Its criterion is not ready acceptance
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Return Philosophy deals with necessary truthstherefore retarded
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A remedial system uniting truth and reason not impossible
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Single canon for the right use of reason
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This system of Institutes claims both truth and demonstration but rather demonstration than truth
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It is a body of necessary truth Its pretensions stated
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An objection to its method stated and obviated
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The polemical character of this system 39 Why philosophy must be polemical She exists only to correct the in advertencies of ordinary thinking
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This might be abundantly proved by the testimony of philosophers
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The object or business to do of philosophy renders her essentially polemical
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The charge of disrespect which might be supposed to attach to philo sophy on account of her polemical character obviated
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What philosophy has to do again distinctly stated
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Its positive object still more distinctly stated Definition of metaphysics
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Why philosophy undertakes this object
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How philosophy goes to work Adherence to canonproposition and counter proposition
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Further explanations as to how philosophy goes to work
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Advantages of this method
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Disadvantages of pot contrasting distinctly the true and the false
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General unintelligibility of systems is due to their neglect to exhibit this contrast
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This system contrasts distinctly the true and the false
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The three sections of this institute Arrangement explained and proved
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to be essential S 5462
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Epistemology and ontology the two main divisions of philosophy
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The epistemology does of itself afford no entrance to ontology Why not?
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Because Absolute Existence may be that which we are ignorant
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This consideration necessitates a new section of philosophy called the agnoiology Its business
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Now we can settle the problem of ontologyand how
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Recapitulation of the three sections 1 Epistemology 2 Aguoiology 3 Ontology This arrangement not arbitrary but necessary
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The necessity of keeping these divisions perfectly distinct
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The natural oversights of thought are rectified in these three sections
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Remarks obviating any objections to the system on the ground that its conclusions cannot at all times be present to the mind
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Continuation of these remarks
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Remark obviating any objection to this system on the score of presump
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tion
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PROPOSITION II
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PROPOSITION III
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PROPOSITION VI
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DEMONSTRATION
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In what sense the contingent element is necessary and in what sense it is contingent
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Why this proposition is introduced
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Question concerning the particular and the universal instead of being made a question of Knowing
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Was made a question of Being by the early philosophers Thales
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Parmenides What change he effected on the question
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It still related to Beingnot to knowing
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Indecision of Greek speculation The three crises of philosophy
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Plato appeared during the second crisis His aim
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Platos deficiencies
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His merits The question respecting the particular and the universal demands an entire reconsideration
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A preliminary ambiguity
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Illustrations of the ambiguity
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Is the Platonic analysis of cognition and existence a division into ele ments or into kinds
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It has been generally mistaken for a division into kinds
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Evasion by which conceptualism endeavours to recover her ground and to conciliate nominalism Its failure
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Nominalism
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Nominalism is annihilated by Proposition VI
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PROPOSITION VII
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OBSERVATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
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208
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212
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PROPOSITION VIII
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OBSERVATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS 1 A caveat 2 Important law of knowledge
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Materiality and immateriality Eighth Counterproposition 4 Eighth counterproposition the common property of materialist and spiritualist
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phrenology 8 The spiritualists conception of mind is as null as the materialists 9 Both parties hold mind to be particular 10 It is known only as the uni...
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PROPOSITION IX
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PROPOSITION X
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A rule for the historian of philosophy
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Ambiguities of the old philosophers
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Three misconceptions arising out of these ambiguities
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Comment on first misconception
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Comment on second misconception
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Comment on third misconception
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Key to the Greek philosophy
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Return to counterproposition It is founded on a confusion of the dis tinction between sense and intellect
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The Lockian and the Kantian psychology in limiting the counterpropo sition effect no subversion of sensualism
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Kants doctrine impotent against sensualism
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The statement in par 4 and the charge in par 7 are borne out by the foregoing remarks
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Kant sometimes nearly right He errs through a neglect of necessary truth
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The true compromise between Sense and Intellect
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PROPOSITION XI
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DEMONSTRATION ib OBSERVATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
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Why this proposition is introduced 2 Distinction between knowing and thinking
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This proposition the foundation of a true philosophy of experience 4 Representationits two insuperable restrictions
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First restriction by way of addition Second by way of subtraction
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The latter restriction unrecognised by philosophers Eleventh Counter proposition
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Its invalidity shown
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PROPOSITION XII
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Why this Proposition is introduced
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On what condition matter per se might be thought of
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In attempting to think it we must leave out an element essential to its cognition and therefore it cannot be thought of
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Illustration
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Self must be represented just as much as it must be presented ib 7 Twelfth Counterproposition
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SECTION I
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PROPOSITION XIV
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PROPOSITION XVI
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PROPOSITION XIX
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PROPOSITION XXI
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but to know their
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PROPOSITION I
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PROPOSITION XXII
404
PROPOSITION IV
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How far the object of ignorance is definable and how far it is not
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PROPOSITION I
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A PREMISS BY WHICH THE THIRD ALTERNATIVE IS ELIMINATED
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PROPOSITION IV
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PROPOSITION VII
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THE ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE
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Question as to the origin of knowledgehas been erroneously treated
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The assumption which vitiates the discussion 3 First consequence of the assumption Ninth Counterproposition 471 3 First consequence of the assump...
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Correction of this doctrine by Des Cartes
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Consequences of the Cartesian correction
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ciency
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His Vision of all things in God
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His Preestablished Harmony ib 12 Character of these hypotheses
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Lockes explanation
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His doctrine of intuitive perception 15 His fundamental defect 16 Reid His misunderstanding of Berkeley 17 Reid failed to establish a doctrine of int...
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He mistook the vocation of philosophy
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Kant Innate ideas
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Right interpretation of this doctrine 22 The circumstance to be particularly attended to in considering this doc trine
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The misconception to be particularly guarded against 24 This misconception has never been guarded against by any philosopher 25 Hence the ineptit...
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it starts from no hypothesis ib 29 Secondly it finds that all cognition consists of two elements
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it finds that matter is only a half cognition 32 Fifthly it establishes intuitive and overthrows representative perception
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PROPOSITION X
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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
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their proscription

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Passatges populars

Pàgina 237 - For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception.
Pàgina 403 - If the reader has got well in hand these two truths, — first, that there can be a knowledge of things only with the addition of a self or subject; and, secondly, that there can be an ignorance only of that of which there can be a knowledge, — he will find himself in possession of a lever powerful enough to break open the innermost secrecies of nature.
Pàgina 402 - Therefore, we can be ignorant only of what can possibly be known ; in other words, there can be an ignorance only of that of which there can be a knowledge.
Pàgina 13 - No man saw the seed planted — no eye noticed the infant sprouts — no mortal hand watered the nursling of the grove — no register was kept of the gradual widening of its girth, or of the growing circumference of its shade — till, the deciduous dialects of surrounding barbarians dying out, the unexpected bole stands forth in all its magnitude, carrying aloft in its foliage the poetry, the history, and the philosophy of a heroic people, and dropping for ever over the whole civilised world the...
Pàgina 91 - The object of knowledge, whatever it may be, is always something more than what is naturally or usually regarded as the object. It always is, and must be, the object with the addition of oneself, — object plus subject, — thing, or thought, mecum. Self is an integral and essential part of every object of cognition.
Pàgina 506 - All absolute existences are contingent except "one; in other words, there is One, but only " one, Absolute Existence which is strictly " necessary ; and that existence is a supreme " and infinite and everlasting Mind in synthesis
Pàgina 188 - PARTICULAR IN COGNITION ARE. The ego (or mind) is known as the element common to all cognitions, — matter is known as the element peculiar to some cognitions : in other words, we know ourselves as the unchangeable, necessary, and universal part of our cognitions, while we know matter, in all its varieties, as a portion of the changeable, contingent, and particular part...
Pàgina 2 - Of these obligations, the latter is the more stringent : it is more proper that philosophy should be reasoned, than that it should be true ; because while truth may perhaps be attainable by man, to reason is certainly his province, and within his power. In a case where two objects have to be overtaken, it is more incumbent on us to compass the one to which our faculties are certainly competent, than the other, to which they are perhaps inadequate.

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