Imatges de pÓgina

The sign Libra in the zodiack.

Juno pours out the urn, and Vulcan claims The scales, as the just product of his flames. Greech.

3. Lescaille, French; squama, Lat.] Small shell or crust, of which many lying one over another make the coats of fishes. He puts him on a coat of mail, Which was made of fish's scale.

Drayton. Standing aloof, with lead they bruise the scales, And tear the flesh of the incensed whales. Waller. 4. Any thing exfoliated or desquamated; a thin lamina.

Take jet and the scales of iron, and with a wet feather, when the smith hath taken an heat, take up the scales that fly from the iron, and those scales you shall grind upon your painter's stone. Peacham,


When a scale of bone is taken out of a wound, burning retards the separation. 5. Escala, a ladder, Lat.] Ladder; means of ascent.

Love refines

The thoughts, and heart enlarges; hath his seat
In reason, and is judicious; is the scale
By which to heav'nly love thou may'st ascend.

On the bendings of these mountains the marks of several ancient scales of stairs may be seen, by which they used to ascend them. Addison. 6. The act of storming by ladders. Others to a city strong

Lay siege, encamp'd; by batt'ry, scale, and mine Assaulting. Milton.

7. Regular gradation; a regular series rising like a ladder.

Well hast thou the scale of nature set,
From centre to circumference; whereon
In contemplation of created things,
By steps we may ascend to God.



The scale of the creatures is matter of high speculation. The higher nature still advances, and preserves his superiority in the scale of being.


All the integral parts of nature have a beautiful analogy to one another, and to their mighty original, whose images are more or less expressive, according to their several gradations in the scale of beings. We believe an invisible world, and a scale of Cheyne. spiritual beings all nobler than ourselves. Bentley Far as creation's ample range extends, The scale of sensual mental pow'rs ascends. Pope. 8. A figure subdivided by lines like the steps of a ladder, which is used to measure proportions between pictures and the thing represented.

The map of London was set out in the year 1658, by Mr. Newcourt, drawn by a scale of yards. Graunt.

9. The series of harmonick or musical proportions.

The bent of his thoughts and reasonings run up and down this scale, that no people can be happy but under good governments. Temple. 10. Any thing marked at equal distances. They take the flow o' th' Nile By certain scale i' th' pyramid: they know By th' height, the lowness, or the mean, if dearth Or foizon follow. Shakspeare.

To SCALE. v. a. [scalare, Italian.] 1. [from scala, a ladder.] To climb as by ladders.

Often have I scal'd the craggy oak, All to dislodge the raven of her nest;



How have I wearied, with many a stroke, The stately walnut-tree, the while the rest Under the tree fell all for nuts at strife! Spenser They assailed the breach, and others with their scaling ladders scaled the walls. Knolles. The way seems difficult, and steep, to scale With upright wing against a higher foe. Milton. Heav'n with these engines had been scal'd, When mountains heap'd on mountains fail'd. Waller. When the bold Typhus scal'd the sky, And forc'd great Jove from his own heav'n to fly, The lesser gods all suffer'd. Dryden. [from scale, a balance.] To measure or compare; to weigh.

You have found,

Sealing his present bearing with his past,
That he's your fixed enemy.

Shakspeare. [from scale of a fish.] To strip of scales; to take off in a thin lamina. Raphael was sent to scale away the whiteness of Tobit's eyes.


To pare off a surface.


If all the mountains were scaled, and the earth made even, the waters would not overflow its smooth surface.

Burnet. To SCALE. v. n. To pecl off in thin particies.

Those that cast their shell are the lobster and crab; the old skins are found, but the old shells never; so as it is like they scale off, and crumble away by degrees. Bacon. SCALED. adj. [from scale.] Squamous ; having scales like fishes.

Half my Egypt was submerg'd, and made A cistern for scal'd snakes. Shakspeare. SCALE'NE. n. s. [French; scalenum, Lat.] In geometry, a triangle that has its three sides unequal to each other. Bailey. SCA'LINESS. n. s. [from sealy.] The state of being scaly.

SCALL. . s. [skalladur, bald, Islandick. See SCALDHEAD.] Leprosy; morbid baldness.

Upon thy bald hede maist thou have the scoll.

Chaucer. It is a dry scall, a leprosy upon the head. Lev. SCALLION. n. s. [scalogna, Italian; ascaSCALLOP. n. s. [escallop, French,] A fish lonia, Latin.] A kind of onion. with a hollow pectinated shell.

So th' emperour Caligula, That triumph'd o'er the British sea, Engag'd his legions in fierce bustles With periwincles, prawns, and muscles; And led his troops with furious gallops, To charge whole regiments of scallops. Hudibras. The sand is in Scilly glistering, which may be occasioned from freestone mingled with white scallop shells. Mortimer, To SCALLOP. v. a. To mark on the edge with segments of circles.

SCALP. n. s. [scheipe, Dutch, a shell; scalpo, Italian.]

1. The scull; the cranium; the bone that encloses the brain.

High brandishing his bright dew-burning blade, Upon his crested scalp so sore did smite, That to the scull a yawning wound it made. Fairy Queen.

If the fracture be not complicated with a wound of the scalp, or the wound is too small to admit of the operation, the fracture must be laid bare by taking away a large piece of the scalp, Sharp.

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'Th' ensanguin'd field. Philips. To SCALP. v. a. [from the noun.] To deprive the scull of its integuments.

We seldom enquire for a fracture of the scull by scalping, but that the scalp itself is contused. Sharp. SCALPEL. n. s. [French; scalpellum, Latin.] An instrument used to scrape a bone by chirurgeons.

SCA'LY. adj. [from scale.] Covered with scales.

The river horse and scaly crocodile. Milton. His awful summons they so soon obey; So hear the scaly herd when Proteus blows, And so to pasture follow through the sea. Dryd. A scaly fish with a forked tail. Woodward. To SCA'MBLE. v. n. [This word, which is scarcely in use, has much exercised the etymological sagacity of Meric Casaubon; but, as is usual, to no purpose.] 1. To be turbulent and rapacious; to scramble; to get by struggling with others.

Have fresh chaff in the bin,
And somewhat to scamble for hog and for hen.
Scambling, out-facing, fashion-mong'ring boys,
That lie, and cog, and flout, deprave and slander.

That self bill is urg'd, and had against us past,
But that the scambling and unquiet time
Did push it out of further question. Shakspeare.

He was no sooner entered into the town but a scambling soldier clapt hold of his bridle, which he thought was in a begging or a drunken fashion. Wotton. Some scambling shifts may be made without them. More. To SCA'MBLE. v. a. To mangle; to maul. My wood was cut in patches, and other parts of it scambled and cut before it was at its growth. Mortimer. SCA'MBLER. n. s. [Scottish.] A bold intruder upon one's generosity or table. SCA'MBLINGLY. adv. [from scambling.] With turbulence and noise; with intrusive audaciousness. SCAMMO'NIATE. adj. [from scammony.] Made with scammony.

2. To shift awkwardly.

It may be excited by a local, scammoniate, or other acrimonious medicines. Wiseman. SCA'MMONY. n. s. [Latin; scammoneé, French.] A concreted resinous juice, light, tender, friable, of a greyish-brown colour, and disagreeable odour. flows upon incision of the root of a kind of convolvulus, that grows in many parts of Asia.



To SCAMPER. v. n. [schampen, Dutch; scampare, Italian.] To fly with speed and trepidation.

A fox seized upon the fawn, and fairly scampered away with him. L'Estrange. You will suddenly take a resolution, in your cabinet of Highlanders, to scamper off with your Addison.

new crown,

Be quick, nay very quick, or he 'll approach, And, as you're scamp'ring, stop you in your coach. King

To SCAN. v. a. [scandre, Fr. scando, Lat.] 1. To examine a verse by counting the feet.

Harry, whose tuneful and well-measur'd song First taught our English musick how to span Words with just note and accent, not to scan With Midas' ears, committing short and long. Milton.

They scan their verses upon their fingers. Walsh. 2. To examine nicely.

So he goes to heav'n, And so am I reveng'd: that would be scann'd. Shakspeare.

The rest the great architect

Did wisely to conceal; and not divulge
His secrets to be scann'd by them, who ought
Rather admire.

Every man has guilt, which he desires should not be rigorously scanned; and therefore, by the rule of charity and justice, ought not to do that which he would not suffer. Gov. of the Tongue.

At the final reckoning, when all men's actions shall be scanned and judged, the great King shall pass his sentence, according to the good men have done, or neglected to do. Calamy.

Sir Roger exposing his palm, they crumpled it into all shapes, and diligently scanned every wrinkle that could be made in it. Addison.

One moment and one thought might let him


The various turns of life, and fickle state of man. Prior.

The actions of men in high stations are all conspicuous, and liable to be scanned and sifted. Atterbury SCANDAL. n. s. [oxávdanov; scandle, Fr.] 1. Offence given by the faults of others. His lustful orgies he enlarg'd


Even to the hill of scandal, by the grove Of Moloch homicide. 2. Reproachful aspersion; opprobrious censure; infamy.

If black scandal, or foul-fac'd reproach, Attend the sequel of your imposition, Your mere enforcement shall acquittance me From all the impure blots and stains thereof. Shak. My known virtue is from scandal free, And leaves no shadow for your calumny. Dryd. In the case of scandal, we are to reflect how men ought to judge. Rogers. To SCANDAL. v. a. [from the noun.] To treat opprobriously; to charge falsely with faults.

You repin'd,

Scandal'd the suppliants; for the people call'd


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To SCA'NDALIZE. v. a. [oxavdaní}w; scandaliser, French; from scandal.] I. To offend by some action supposed criminal.

I demand who they are whom we scandalize by using harmless things? Among ourselves, that agree in this use, no man will say that one of us is offensive and scandalous unto another. Hooker. It had the excuse of some bashfulness, and care not to scandalize others. Hammond.

Whoever considers the injustice of some ministers, in those intervals of parliament, will not be scandalized at the warmth and vivacity of those meetings. Clarendon.

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Of tyranny, which will ignoble make you, Yea, scandalous to the world. 2. Opprobrious; disgraceful. 3. Shameful; openly vile.

You know the scandalous meanness of that proceeding, which was used. Pope. SCANDALOUSLY.adv. [from scandalous.] 1. Shamefully; ill to a degree that gives publick offence.

His discourse at table was scandalously unbecoming the dignity of his station; noise, brutality, and obsceneness. Swift.

2. Censoriously; opprobriously.

Shun their fault, who, scandalously nice, Will needs mistake an author into vice. Pope. SCANDALOUSNESS. n. s. [from scandalous. The quality of giving publick offence.

SCA'NSION. 1. n. s. [scansio, Latin.] The act or practice of scanning a verse. To SCANT. v. a. [zercænan, Saxon, to break; skaaner, Danish, to spare.] To limit; to straiten.

You think

I will your serious and great business scant,
For she is with me.
They need rather to be scanted in their nourish-
ment than replenished, to have them sweet.

Bacon. We might do well to think with ourselves, what time of stay we would demand, and he bade us not to scant ourselves. Bacon.

Looking on things through the wrong end of the perspective, which scants their dimensions, we neglect and contemn them. Glanville.

Starve them,

For fear the rankness of the swelling womb Should scant the passage, and confine the room. Dryden.

I am scanted in the pleasure of dwelling on your actions.

SCANT. adj. [from the verb.]


1. Not plentiful; scarce; less than what is proper or competent.

White is a penurious colour, and where moisture is scant: so blue violets, and other flowers, if they be starved, turn pale and white. Bacon. A single violet transplant:

The strength, the colour, and the size,
All which before was poor and scant,
Redoubles still and multiplies.

To find out that,


In such a scant allowance of star-light, Would over-task the best land-pilot's art. Milt.. 2. Wary; not liberal; parsimonious. From this time,

Be somewhat scanter of your maiden presence. SCANT. adv. [from the adjective.] ScarceShakspeare. ly: hardly. Obsolete.

The people, beside their travail, charge, and

long attendance, received of the bankers scant twenty shillings for thirty. Camden.

We scant read in any writer, that there have been seen any people upon the south coast. Abbot. A wild pamphlet, besides other malignities, would scant allow him to be a gentleman. Watton. O'er yonder hill does scant the dawn appear. SCA'NTILY. adv. [from scanty.] Gay. 1. Narrowly; not plentifully. 2. Sparingly; niggardly. He spoke

Scantily of me, when perforce he could not But pay me terms of honour. Shakspeare. SCA'NTINESS. n. s. [from scanty.] 1. Narrowness; want of space; want of compass.

Virgil has sometimes two of them in a line; but the scantiness of our heroick verse is not capable of receiving more than one. Dryden. 2. Want of amplitude or greatness; want of liberality.

Alexander was much troubled at the scantiness of nature itself, that there were no more worlds for him to disturb. South. SCA'NTLET. n. s. [corrupted, as it seems, from scantling.] A small pattern; a small quantity; a little piece.

While the world was but thin, the ages of mankind were longer; and as the world grew fuller, so their lives were successively reduced to a shorter scantlet, 'till they came to that time SCA'NTLING. 2. s. [eschantillon, French; of life which they now have.

ciantellino, Italian.]


1. A quantity cut for a particular purpose. 'Tis hard to find out a woman that's of a just Scantling for her age, humour, and fortune, to. make a wife of. L'Estrange.

2. A certain proportion.

The success,

Although particular, shall give a scantling Of good or bad unto the general.

3. A small quantity.


Reduce desires to narrow scantlings and small proportions.

Taylor. A scantling of wit lay gasping for life, and groaning beneath a heap of rubbish. Dryden. In this narrow scantling of capacity, we enjoy but one pleasure at once. Locke. SCANTLY. adv. [from scant.] 1. Scarcely; hardly. Obsolete.

England, in the opinion of the popes, was preferred, because it contained in the ecclesiastical division two large provinces, which had their several legati nati; whereas France had scantly Camden. 2. Narrowly; penuriously; without amplitude.


My eager love, I'll give myself the lie;
The very hope is a full happiness,

Yet scantly measures what I shall possess. Dryd. SCA'NTNESS. n. s. [from scant.] Narrowness; meanness; smallness.

He was a man fierce, and of no evil disposition, saving that he thought scantness of estate too great an evil. Hayward.

Did we but compare the miserable scantness of our capacities with the vast profundity of things, truth and modesty would teach us wary language. Glanville. SCANTY. adj. [The same with scant.] 1. Narrow; small; wanting amplitude; short of quantity sufficient.

As long as one can increase the number, he

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will think the idea he hath a little too scanty for Locke. positive infinity.

His dominions were very narrow and scanty; for he had not the possession of a foot of land, 'till he bought a field of the sons of Heth. Locke. Now scantier limits the proud arch confine, And scarce are seen the prostrate Nile and Rhine;

A small Euphrates through the piece is roll'd, And little eagles wave their wings in gold. Pope. 2. Small; poor; not copious; not ample.

Their language being cranty, and accommodat ed only to the few necessaries of a needy simple life, had no words in it to stand for a thouLocke. sand. There remained few marks of the old tradition, so they had narrow and scanty conceptions Woodward. of providence.

3. Sparingly niggardly; parsimonious
In illustrating a point of difficulty, be not too
scanty of words, but rather become copious in
your language.

They with such scanty wages pay
The bondage and the slavery of years.

To SCAPE. v. a. [contracted from escape.] To escape; to miзs; to avoid; to shun; not to incur; to fly.

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What, have I scaped love-letters in the holyday time of my beauty, and am I now a subject for them?


I doubt not but to die a fair death, if I scape hanging.

What can 'scape the eye

Of God all-seeing?



To SCAPE. v. n. To get away from hurt or danger.

Could they not fall unpity'd on the plain, But, slain, revive, and, taken,scape again? Dryd. SCAFE. n. s. [from the verb.] 1. Escape; flight from hurt or danger; the act of declining or running from danger; accident of safety.

I spoke of most disast'rous chances,
Of hair-breadth scapes in th' imminent deadly

2. Means of escape; evasion.

Having purpos'd falsehood, you

Can have no way but falsehood to be true! Vain lunatick, against these scapes I could "Dispute, and conquer, if I would.


3. Negligent freak; deviation from regularity.

No natural exhalation in the sky, No scape of nature, no distemper'd day, But they will pluck away its natʼral cause, And call them meteors, prodigies, and sigris. Shakspeare.

4. Loose act of vice or lewdness.

A bearne! a very pretty bearne! sure some sape: though I am not bookish, yet I can read waiting-gentlewoman in the scape. Shakspeare. Thou lurk'dst

In valley or green meadow, to way-lay
Some beauty rare, Calisto, Clymene:
Too long thou laid'st thy scapes on names ador'd.

SCAPULA. n. s. [Lat.] The shoulderblade.

The heat went off from the parts, and spread up higher to the breast and scapula. Wiseman. SCAPULAR. { adj. {scapulaire, Fr. from SCAPULARY.S scapula, Lat.] Relating or belonging to the shoulders.

The viscera were counterpoised with the weight of the scapular part. Derbam

SCAR n. s. [from eschar, escare, French; ἔσχαρα.] A mark made by a hurt or fire; a cicatrix.

Scratch thee but with a pin, and there remains Some scar, of it.

The soft delicious air,


To heal the scars of these corrosive fires,
Shall breathe her balm.

Miltch. it niay be struck out of the omnisciency of God, and leave no scar nor blemish behind.

Morey This earth had the beauty of youth and blooming nature, and not a wrinkle, scar, or fracture, on all its body.


In a hemorrhage from the lungs, stypticks are often insignificant; and if they could operate upon the affected part, so far as to make a scar, when that fell off, the disease would return.


To SCAR. v. a. [from the noun.] To mark as with a sore or wound.

Yet I'll not shed her blood,"

Nor scar that whiter skin of her's than snow, And smooth as monumental alabaster. Shaksp. SCA'RAB. n. J. [scarabee, Fr. scarabæus, Lat.] A beetle; an insect with sheathed wings.

A small scarab is bred in the very tips of elmleaves: these leaves may be observed to be dry and dead, as also turgid, in which lieth a dirty, whitish, rough maggot, from which proceeds a beetle. Derbam

SCARAMOUCH. n. [escarmouche, Fr.] A buffoon in motly dress.

It makes the solemnities of justice pageantry, and the bench reverend puppets or scaramouches in scarlet. Collier.

SCARCE. adj. [scarso, Italian; schaers, Dutch.]

1. Not plentiful; not copious.

A Swede will no more sell you his hemp for less silver, because you tell him silver is scarcer now in England, and therefore risen one-fifth in value, than a tradesman of London will sell his commodity cheaper to the Isle of Man, because Locke money is scarce there.

2. Rare; not common.

The scarcest of all is a Pescennius Niger on a medallion well preserved. Addison.

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i, Hardly; scantly.


A thing which we so little hoped to see, that even they which beheld it done scarcely believed their own senses. Hooker.

When we our betters see bearing our woes, We scarcely think our miseries our foes Shaks. Age, which unavoidably is but one remove from death, and consequently should have nothing about it but what looks like a decent preparation for it, scarce ever appears, of late days, but in the high mode, the flaunting garb, and utSouth. most gaudery of youth.

You neither have enemies, nor can scarce have


With difficulty.

He scarcely knew him, striving to disown His blotted form, and blushing to be known. Dryden. Slowly he sails, and scarcely stems the tides; The pressing water pours within her sides. SCARCENESS. SCARCITY. Wiseman.

The humours dispersed through the branches of the axillary artery to the scapulary branches.



n. s. [from scarce.]

1. Smallness of quantity; not plenty; 、 penury.

Scarcity and want shall shun you; Ceres' blessing so is on you.

Shakspeare. Raphael writes thus concerning his Galatea: to paint a fair one, 't is necessary for me to see many fair ones; but, because there is so great a scarcity of lovely women, I am constrained to make use of one certain idea, which I have formed in my fancy. Dryden. Corn does not rise or fall by the differences of more or less plenty of money, but by the plenty and scarcity that God sends." Locke.

In this grave age, when comedies are few, We crave your patronage for one that's new, And let the scarceness recommend the fare.


They drink very few liquors that have not lain in fresco, insomuch that a scarcity of snow would raise a mutiny at Naples. Addison.

2. Rareness; infrequency; not common


They that find fault with our store, should be least willing to reprove our scarcity of thanksgivings. Hooker.

Since the value of an advantage is enhanced by its scarceness, it is hard not to give a man leave to love that most which is most serviceable. Collier. To SCARE. v. a. [scorare, Ital. Skinner.] To fright; to frighten; to affright; to terrify; to strike with sudden fear.

They have scared away two of my best sheep, which, I fear, the wolf will sooner find than the Shakspeare.


My grained ash an hundred times hath broke, And scar'd the moon with splinters. Shakspeare. The noise of thy cross-bow

Will scare the herd, and so my shoot is lost.


Scarecrows are set up to keep birds from corn and fruit; and some report that the head of a wolf, whole, dried, and hanged up in a dovehouse, will scare away vermin. Bacon.

The wing of the Irish was so grievously either galled or scared therewith, that, being strangers, and in a manner neutrals, they had neither good heart to go forward, nor good liking to stand still, nor good assurance to run away. Hayward.

One great reason why men's good purposes so often fail, is, that when they are devout, or scared, they then in the general resolve to live religiously. Calamy.


Let wanton wives by death be scar'd; But, to my comfort, I'm prepar'd. SCA'RECROW. n. s. [scare and crow.] An image or clapper set up to fright birds: thence any vain terrour.

Thereat the scarecrow waxed wond'rous proud, Through fortune of his first adventure fair, And with big thundering voice revil'd him loud. Spenser.

No eye hath seen such scarecrows: I'll not march through Coventry with them, that 's flat. Shakspeare.

We must not make a scarecrow of the law, Setting it up to fear the birds of prey, And let it keep one shape, 'till custom make it Their pearch, and not their terrour. Shaksp. Many of those great guns, wanting powder and shot, stood but as cyphers and scarecrotus. Raleigh.

A scarecrow set to frighten fools away. Dryd. SCA'REPIRE. n. s. [scare and fire.] A fright by fire; a fire breaking out so as to raise terrour.


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Come, seeling night,

Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day. Shaksp. SCARFSKIN. 2. s. [scarf and skin.] The cuticle; the epidermis; the outer scaly integuments of the body.

The scarfskin, being uppermost, is composed of several lays of small scales, which lie thicker according as it is thicker in one part of the body than another: between these the excretory ducts of the miliary glands of the true skin open.

Cheyne. SCARIFICATION, n. s. [scarificatio, Lat. scarification, Fr. from scarify.] Incision of the skin with a lancet, or such like instrument. It is most practised in cupping. Quincy. Hippocrates tells you, that, in applying of cups, the scarification ought to be made with crooked instruments. SCARIFICATOR. n. s. [from scarify.]

One who scarifies.

SCA'RIFIER. N. s. [from scarify.] 1. He who scarifies.


2. The instrument with which scarifications are made.

To SCA'RIFY. v. a. [scarifico, Lat. scarifier, Fr.] To let blood by incisions of the skin, commonly after the applica tion of cupping-glasses.

Washing the salts out of the eschar, and scarifying it, I dressed it. Wiseman. You quarter foul language upon me, without knowing whether I deserve to be cupped and scarified at this rate. Spectator. SCARLET. n. s. [escarlate, Fr. scarlato, Italian.] A colour compounded of red and yellow; cloth dyed with a scarlet colour.


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