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the business till her son was grown up. At that time, Benjamin assisted them with an assortment of new types, and they were, in this manner, enabled to continue the establishment.

12. The club which Franklin had founded proved to be so useful, and afforded so much satisfaction to the members, that they proposed to introduce their friends, and increase their number. They had, from the beginning, determined to keep the Junto a secret, and the secret was kept better than such things usually are. Franklin was of opinion that twelve members formed a club sufficiently large, and that it would be inconvenient to increase it.

13. Instead of adding to their number, he proposed that every member, separately, should endeavor to form another club, with the same rules and on the same plan, without informing them of the existence of the Junto. The project was approved, and every member undertook to form his club; but they did not all succeed. Five or six only were completed, which were called by different names, as the Vine, the Union, the Band. These clubs were useful, and afforded their members a good deal of amusement and information.

14. In 1736, Franklin was chosen clerk of the General Assembly. The choice was made that

12. How did the Junto flourish? 13. What new clubs were formed? How? 14. To what office was Franklin elected in 1736 1

year without any opposition, but, on the next, a new member of that body made a long speech against him. This, however, did not prevent his second election. The place was one of some credit, and, by giving Franklin an opportunity to make friends among the members, enabled him to secure the business of printing the public laws, votes, and pa per money.

15. The new member, who had opposed Franklin, was a man of education and talents, and it was desirable to gain his good opinion. Franklin was too proud to pay any servile respect to him, but was too prudent not to wish for his favor. After some time, with his usual shrewdness and knowledge of human nature, he hit upon the following expedient.

16. Having heard that this gentleman had in his library a very scarce and curious book, he wrote a note, requesting that he would do him the favor of lending it for a few days. The book was immediately sent, and in about a week was returned by the borrower, with a short note, expressive of his sincere thanks for the favor.

17. The next time they met in the house, the gentleman spoke to Franklin with a great deal of civility. He ever after manifested a readiness to serve him, and they became great friends. "This is another instance," observes Franklin, "of the truth of an old maxim I had learned, which says

16. How did Franklin conciliate a member who was opposed to



He that has done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged.' And it shows how much more profitable it is prudently to remove than to resent, return, and continue inimical proceedings."

18. In 1737, Colonel Spotswood, at that time postmaster-general, being dissatisfied with his deputy at Philadelphia, took away his commission, and offered it to Franklin. He accepted it with readiness, and found it of great advantage. Though the salary was small, the office gave him the means of increasing the subscribers to his paper, and in this way increased his advertisements. His paper now began to afford him a very considerable income.


Reform of the City Watch. Fire Companies. Rev. Mr. Whitefield. Effects of his Preaching. His Project of building an Orphan House in Georgia. Anecdotes. Franklin's Opinion of him. Franklin's Prosperity. Military Defence of the Province. Formation of Companies.

1. FRANKLIN now began to turn his attention to public affairs. One of his first efforts in this way was to reform the city watch. This was managed

17. What is the old maxim quoted by Franklin? 18. To what office was Franklin appointed in 1737 ?

in the different wards by the constables, who assembled a certain number of housekeepers to attend them for the night. Those who did not choose to attend paid six shillings a year to be excused. This made the constableship an office of profit: for, instead of spending the money thus received in hiring other watchmen, it was spent in liquors, by which the constables were able to get a parcel of ragamuffins about them, instead of decent and orderly


2. These fellows seldom went the rounds of the watch, but spent most of the night in tippling. In the course of a few years, by the exertions of Franklin and his friends, an entire alteration was produced in the laws upon this subject. About the same time that he began to converse at the Junto on the abuses of the watch, he wrote a paper on the different accidents by which houses were set on fire, and means proposed of avoiding them.

3. This gave rise to a project, which soon followed, of forming a company to assist, with readiness, at fires. Thirty persons were immediately found, willing to join in the scheme. Their articles of agreement obliged every member to keep, always in order and fit for use, a certain number of leathern buckets, with strong bags and baskets for packing

1. What reform did Franklin introduce, when he first turned his attention to public affairs? 2. On what subject did he write a paper for the Junto? 3. To what project did this give rise 1 How did succeed!

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