Imatges de pÓgina

The space marked out for a small garden, is furvey'd almost at one view; and requires a motion of the eye fo flight, as to pass for an object that can be comprehended under the largest angle of diftinct vifion: if not divided into too many parts, we are apt to form the fame judgement of each part; and confequently to magnify the garden in proportion to the number of its parts.

A very large plain without protuberances, is an object not lefs rare than beautiful; and in those who see it for the first time, it must produce an emotion of wonder. This emotion, however flight, impofes upon the mind, and makes it judge that the plain is larger than it is in reality. Divide this plain into parts, and our wonder ceafes it is no longer confidered as one great plain, but as fo many different fields or inclofures.

The first time one beholds the fea, it appears to be large beyond all bounds. When it becomes familiar, and raises our wonder in no degree, it appears lefs than it is in reality. In a ftorm it appears larger, being diftinguishable by the rolling waves into a nuniber of great parts. Llands fcattered at confiderable diftances, add in appearance to its fize: each intercepted part looks extremely large, and we infenfibly apply arithmetic to increafe, the appearance of the whole. Many iflands fcattered at hand, give a diminutive appearance to the fea, by its connection with its diminutive parts the Lomond lake would undoubtedly look larger without its islands.



Furniture increaseth in appearance the fize of a fmall room, for the fame reafon that divifions increase in appearance the fize of a garden. The emotion of wonder which is raised by a very large room without furniture, makes it look larger than it is in reality: if completely furnished, we view it in parts, and our wonder is not raised.

A low ceiling hath a diminutive appearance, which, by an eafy transition of ideas, is communicated to the length and breadth, provided they bear any proportion to the height. If they be out of all proportion, the oppofition feizes the mind, and raises fome degree of wonder, which makes the difference appear greater than it really is.


The refemblance of emotions to their caufes.


Hat many emotions have fome refemblance to their caufes, is a truth that can be made clear by induction; though, fo far as I know, the obfervation has not been made by any writer. Motion in its different circumftances, is productive of feelings that refemble it: fluggish motion, for example, caufeth a languid unpleasant feeling; flow uniform motion, a feeling calm and pleafant; and brifk motion, a lively feeling that roufes the fpirits and promotes activity. A fall


of water through rocks, raises in the mind a tumultuous confufed agitation, extremely fimilar to its cause. When force is exerted with any effort, the spectator feels a fimilar effort, as of force exerted within his mind. A large object fwells the heart. An elevated object makes the spectator ftand erect.

Sounds alfo produce emotions or feelings that resemble them. A found in a low key, brings down the mind; fuch a found in a full tone, hath a certain folemnity, which it communicates to the feeling produced by it. A found in a high key, chears the mind by raising it: fuch a found in a full tone, both elevates and fwells the mind.


Again, a wall or pillar that declines from the perpendicular, produceth a painful feeling, as of a tottering and falling within the mind; and a feeling fomewhat fimilar is produced by a tall pillar that stands fo ticklish as to look like falling*. A column with a bafe looks more firm and stable than upon the naked ground; and for that reafon is more agreeable: and a cube as a bafe, is preferred before a cylinder, though the latter is a more beautiful figure; because the angles of a cube are extended to a greater diftance from the centre than the circumference of a cylinder. This excludes not a different reason,

Sunt enim Tempe faltus tranfitu difficilis: nam præter anguftias per quinque millia, quâ exiguum jumento onufto iter eft, rupes utrinque ita abfciffæ funt, ut defpici vix fine vertigine quadam fimul oculorum animique poffit. Titus Livius, lib. 44. Sect. 6.



that the base, fhaft, and capital, of a pillar, ought, for the fake of variety, to differ from each other if the fhaft be round, the bafe and capital ought to be square.

A constrained posture, uneafy to the man himself, is difagreeable to the fpectator; whence a rule in painting, that the drapery ought not to adhere to the body, but hang loose, that the figures may appear eafy and free in their movements. The constrained pofture of a French dancing-mafter in one of Hogarth's pieces, is for that reafon difagreeable; and it is also ridiculous, because the constraint is affumed as a grace.

The foregoing obfervation is not confined to emotions or feelings raised by still life: it holds alfo in what are raifed by the qualities, actions, and paffions, of a fenfible being. Love inspired by a fine woman, affumes her qualities: it is fublime, foft, tender, fevere, or gay, according to its cause. This is ftill more remarkable in emotions raised by human actions: it hath already been remarked, that any fignal inftance of gratitude, befide procuring efteem for the author, raifeth in the fpectator a vague emotion of gratitude, which difpofeth him to be grateful; and I now further remark, that this vague emotion hath a strong resemblance to its caufe, viz. the paffion that produced the grateful action: courage exerted infpires the reader as well as the fpectator

* Part 1. of this chapter, fect. 3.

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with a like emotion of courage: a juft action fortifies our love of juftice, and a generous action roufes our generofity. In fhort, with respect to all virtuous actions, it will be found by induction, that they lead us to imitation by infpiring emotions resembling the paffions that produced these actions. And hence the benefit of choice books and choice company.

Grief as well as joy are infectious: the emotions they raise in a spectator refemble them perfectly. Fear is equally infectious: and hence in an army, fear, even from the flightest cause, making an impreffion on a few, fpreads generally through all, and becomes an univerfal panic. Pity is fimilar to its caufe: a parting fcene between lovers or friends, produceth in the spectator a fort of pity, which is tender like the diftrefs the anguish of remorfe, produceth pity of a harfh kind; and if the remorse be extreme, the pity hath a mixture of horror. Anger I think is fingular; for even where it is moderate, and caufeth no difguft, it difpofes not the fpectator to anger in any degree *. Covetoufnefs, cruelty, treachery, and other vicious paffions, are fo far from raifing any emotion fimilar to themselves, to incite a fpectator to imitation, that they have an oppofite effect: they raise ab

* Aristotle, Poet. cap. 18. § 3. fays, that anger raiseth in the fpectator a fimilar emotion of anger.


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