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of orthodox dissent. Equally inconsistent with their founder's teaching was their next spiritual adventure, when they plunged into the Quietism which had become popular in France. The Quakers busily translated, and eagerly accepted as representing their own belief, such writings as those of Madame Guyon, regardless of the fact that Quietism assumes human depravity in contrast to their own principle of the universal inward light. On such a topic Dr. Jones is at his best. He recognizes the contradiction but expatiates with insight and enthusiasm upon the spirit and fruits of Quietism in all its exponents, and upon its influence on those who did not consciously follow its leading.

We cannot regard him as equally successful in his treatment of the next phase of Quakerism. After a gloomy period of decline in every respect except earnestness, during which an almost morbid excess of scrupulous examination of conscience concerning details of conduct and motive seems to have been dominant, their leaders fell under the influence of the rigid Evangelicalism that prevailed in certain Anglican circles before and after the beginning of the Nineteenth century. The wealth and social position of the more prominent Friends made their submission quite natural. They accepted without examination that doctrine of the absolute inspiration of Scripture, interpreted in the Calvinist sense, which led too many churchmen into unprofitable byways of research into unfulfilled prophecy, and misled some of them into the Plymouth secession. Mr. J. J. Gurney made himself the leader of this movement among the Quakers, and Dr. Jones is candid in admitting the Anglican origin of his peculiar teaching; Simeon and Venn were the guides he followed. Whether he shews his usual wisdom in describing it as the 'liberal and progressive element' in the Quakerism of the day may well be doubted. In any case the result was a fatal schism in America, which shewed how Quietists can quarrel, and in England, though no rival churches severally claiming the genuine succession were founded, there was a multitude of individual secessions in various directions, which generally have brought the seceders, or their descendants, into our own Church. Nor have the Friends retained the impress of Gurney. In a most interesting statement of their principles, recently published,1 which gives under many headings the testimony of earnest members of the Society to the aspects of Christianity which have chiefly influenced them, only four pages are devoted to the Bible.

1 Christian Life, Faith and Thought in the Society of Friends. (London: The Friends' Bookshop. 1922.)

In more recent days there has been a wide departure from the original principles in America. If the Calvinism of Barclay and Gurney is extinct, so is the Quaker system of mutual responsibility. A professional ministry is general, and sacraments have been introduced. Dr. Jones is not satisfied with this 'radically transformed type of Quakerism, with its loss of inner depth and mystical quality, its popular methods and extreme evangelicalism.' It has not succeeded, he says, even in the increase of numbers; and in the last generation Quakerism suffered from a spasm of perfectionism and faith-healing and expectation of the Second Advent. There was, in fact, an attempt, analogous to Barclay's, to identify Quakerism with the popular Protestantism of the day. Still, Dr. Jones holds that the situation is 'not beyond remedy,' especially if there be an escape from the paid ministry, as for instance by the employment of a salaried secretary for the congregation. Of England he is able to speak more hopefully. He lays just emphasis on the social tasks which the Friends have been inspired to undertake, and especially on their adult schools, which have grown into an 'unsectarian working men's church,' and which he compares with the work of the Franciscan tertiaries. He omits to notice that these, and those who fell under their influence, were corporate members of the same body, and does not seem to regret the looser association with Friends which is all that their efforts can bring about.

Dr. Jones in the course of a laborious task does not always maintain our interest. There are weary pages about protests against war service and westward migrations, and sometimes there is that touch of exaggeration from which members of small societies are apt to suffer. We must be pardoned if we smile at 'Huldah Hoag, the wife of Joseph Hoag and mother of the no less famous Lindley Murray Hoag.' But he has drawn a noble and profoundly Christian picture, and his readers cannot fail to be confirmed in their faith by this record of a singularly pure and consistent testimony to things essential.

PERIODICALS.

The Journal of Theological Studies (Vol. XXIV. No. 96. July 1923. Milford). V. H. Stanton: Style and Authorship of the Acts of the Apostles.' A. Caldecott: The Significance of the Cleansing of the Temple." N. D. Coleman : Note on Mark ix 49, 50. A New Meaning for Halas " (='salted food '). F. R. M. Hitchcock: Did Clement of Alexandria know the Didache?' A. H. McNeile: A Note on Heb. ix 12. W. F. Howard: On the Futuristic use of the Aorist Participle in Hellenistic.' F. C. Burkitt: (1) The Text of the Vulgate '; (2) 'Note

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on the Pictures in the Pentateuch of Tours' (MS Paris. Nouv. Acquis. Lat. 2334); (3) The Old Lectionary of Jerusalem'; (4) 'The Jacobite Service for Holy Saturday.' D. L. O'Leary: On a Directory Fragment recently discovered in the Wadi N-Natrun.' J. Skinner: Eissfeldt Hexateuch Synopse' (8 pp.). F. C. Burkitt: H. G. Jameson Origin of the Synoptic Gospels.' C. A. Scott: 'Headlam Jesus the Christ.' J. Oman: Richmond Philosophy and the Christian Experience';' Galloway Religion and Modern Thought'; 'Thouless Psychology of Religion.' A. Caldecott: 'Pringle-Pattison The Idea of Immortality.' A. G. Widgery: • Chronicon Spinozanum, I';‘Carra de Vaux Les Penseurs de l'Islam'; 'Dudon Molinos, 1628-96.' Dom R. H. Connolly: Frere The Primitive Consecration Prayer'; Chabrol Liturgical Prayer.' H. F. Stewart : Gazier Histoire du mouvement janséniste.' J. F. B[ethune]B[aker] J. Y. Simpson Man and . Immortality'; 'W. H. Wood The Religion of Science'; 'W. A. Brown The Church in America'; Bundy The Psychic Health of Jesus.' M. R. James McCown Testament of Solomon.' J. K. Fotheringham: 'Gerhardt Der Stern des Messias.' A. Souter: 'Vogels Novum Testamentum Graece and Graece et Latine.' D. Stone, L. Prestige, C. H. Turner: 'The Lexicon of Patristic Greek.' (Notes on 'Adam,'' Hades,'' Agenetos, Agennetos,'' Genetos, Gennetos,' Cheirotonia,' etc.)

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The Princeton Theological Review (Vol. XXI. No. 3. July 1923. Princeton University Press). R. D. Wilson: The Influence of Daniel,' I. C. M. Mackay: The City of Ezekiel's Oblation.' F. D. Jenkins: 'Is Harnack's History of Dogma a History of Harnack's Dogma?' E. E. Eells: Protestantism and Property,' II. L. S. Keyser: J. B. Pratt Matter and Spirit.' W. H. Johnson: Simpson Man and Immortality'; 'H. H. Lane Evolution and Christian Faith'; Beckwith The Idea of God.' S. G. Craig: Neville Talbot The Returning Tide of Faith.' O. T. Allis: Eissfeldt Hexateuch-Synopse'; 'Mercer Life and Growth of Israel.' L. Berkhof: A. L. Williams The Hebrew-Christian Messiah.' J. G. Machen: 'Peabody The Apostle Paul'; ' G. W. Richards Christian Ways of Salvation.' C. R. Erdman: W. S. Bishop Spirit and Personality.' F. D. Jenkins: 'Darragh The Resurrection of the Flesh.' J. R. Stevenson : Söderblom Christian Fellowship.'

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The Congregational Quarterly (Vol. I. No. 3. July 1923. Congregational Union: Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, E.C. 4). Right Hon. A. Birrell: Daniel De Foe (1659–1731).' A. Duff: Dillmann. A Centenary Memorial.' R. Hoffmann-de-Visme: Friedrich Delitzsch.' E. J. Price: 'The Mind of Paul.' Major-Gen. A. W. Greely: A Canadian Hero of the Greely Arctic Expedition.' W. Adams Brown: Movements of Promise in the American Churches.' A. Rowland: Personal Memories of Prominent Ministers.' A. E. Garvie: 'Nonconformity in the Universities-III, London.' E. S. Kirk: Congregationalism in Australia.' A. Peel Church Finance.' W. Blackshaw: Loisy Les Livres du N.T.'; Strack u. Billerbeck Das Evangelium nach Matthäus erläutert aus Talmud u. Midrasch.' A. Peel: 'Woodlock Constantinople, Canterbury and Rome'; Liberal Evangelicalism'; 'Coulton Five Centuries of Religion, I.' W. B. Selbie: Varendonck The Evolution of the Conscious Faculties'; 'F. R. Barry Christianity and Psychology' ('a quite admirable introduction to the subject'). S. M. Berry: Papini The Story of Christ.' R. Mackintosh: Widgery Outlines of a Philosophy of Life. S. Cave: Nicholson The Idea of Personality in Sufism.' H. T. Andrews: 'Q. The Earliest Gospel?'; Jameson Origin of the Synoptic Gospels.' J. D. Jones: Marchant (ed.) Life's True Values.' M. L. Jacks: Reform of Education.'

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The Baptist Quarterly (N.S. Vol. I. No. 7. July 1923. Baptist Union 4 Southampton Row, W.C. 1). H. Petrick: A Baptist Doctor with the Prussian Army.' Report of Commission on Baptism.' J. W. VOL. XCVII.-NO. CXCIII.

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Davies August Dillmann, Orientalist and Bible Critic.' S. P. Carey :
New Light on Dr. Carey.' A. J. Payne: 'The Baptist Board.' W. J.
Avery The Late Midland College.'
The Journal of Religion (Vol. III. No. 5. September 1923. Chicago
University Press). E. W. Lyman : Religious Education for a New
Democracy.' J. Ratner: George Santayana's Theory of Religion.'
A. B. Brown: The Dark Night of the Soul.' F. Eakin Is Bible
Study identical with Religious Education?' M. Puglisi: Present
Religious Tendencies in Italy.' K. Bomhausen: The Present Status
of the Protestant Churches in Germany.' E. W. Lyman: Sir H. Jones
A Faith that enquires.' G. Cross: G. W. Richards Christian Ways of
Salvation'; 'Pringle-Pattison The Idea of Immortality.' G. B. Smith:
'Machen Christianity and Liberalism. J. M. P. Smith: Mowinckel
Psalmenstudien.'

The Pilgrim (Vol. III. No. 4. July 1923. Longmans). H. T. Hodgkin: Spiritual Regeneration as the Basis of World Reconstruction. II The End in View.' A. E. Garvie: A German Philosopher on Public Life' (Prof. L. Nelson of Göttingen). R. G. Hawtrey: CreditPower and Major Douglas.' S. H. Clark:' Reunion: Its Present Position and its Future Tasks.' R. L. Langford-James: The Claim of the Contemplative Life.' F. G. Chevassut: The Study of the Psychology of Religion' (Reviews Mr. R. H. Thouless). E. Shillito: 'The Modernity of Pascal.' Right Rev. W. Temple (Bp. of Manchester): ‘Christianity and Marriage.' Liberal Evangelicalism.' Anglican Essays.' Gore Catholicism and Roman Catholicism.' Woodlock Constantinople, Canterbury, and Rome.' 'Pratt Matter and Spirit.' 'Pringle-Pattison Immortality.' 'Lowes Dickinson War.' 'Marchant (ed.) The Coming Renais

sance.'

The Expositor (N.S. Nos. 151-3. July-September 1923. Hodder and Stoughton). Very Rev. Sir G. Adam Smith: Jeremiah in the Siege.' J. de Zwaan: Some Remarks on the "Ethics" of Jesus.' A. M. Pope: Paul's Previous Meeting with Jesus.' J. Moffatt The Difficulties of the Diatessaron.' D. M. Baillie: Philosophers and Theologians. An Irenicon.' W. Ewing: The Remedies of the Good Samaritan.' August. J. Oman: Method in Theology.' W. Henderson-Begg: The Place of the O.T. in Modern Christian Teaching.' H. L. Simpson: Rizpah's Watch.' (The late) O. C. Whitehouse: The Historical Background of the Deutero-Isaiah.' A. T. Robertson: The N.T. use of MH with Hesitant Questions in the Indicative Mood.' Rendel Harris: Base-born and True-born.' September. W. E. Barnes: The Mischief of Metrical Theory (Micah i. 1-9).' H. L. Simpson: Putting a God to Bed' (1 Sam. xix 13).' H. T. Andrews: The Influence of Christian Experience on the Development of N.T. Theology.' N. J. D. White: 'The Power of His Resurrection.' H. C. Waddell: The Readers of the Epistle to the Hebrews.' F. J. Powicke: ' Richard Baxter as Bookman.'

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The Expository Times (Vol. XXXIV. Nos. 10-12. July-September 1923. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark). S. A. Cook: 'The Servant of the Lord.' F. J. Rae: Religious Experience and the New Psychology.' A. Plummer: The Apocryphal Gospels, II.' C. M. Mackay: The City and the Sanctuary.' K. Baba and J. A. Selbie: The Great High Priest (Heb. iv 14). D. S. Margoliouth: Moritz Arabien.' 'R. H. Charles The Adventure into the Unknown.' Papini Life of Christ.' Strachey Landmarks in French Literature.' 'T. H. Robinson Prophecy and the Prophets in Ancient Israel.' 'Dearmer Lessons on the Way, II.' August. F. R. M. Hitchcock: The Structure of St. Paul's Hymn of Love.' A. D. Belden: The Reticence of God.' J. M. Shaw: Jesus' Thought of Prayer.' A. E. Garvie: God's Purpose as revealed in Jesus Christ.' V. T. Kirby: Christ's Resurrection as evidence to itself.' J. S. Stevenson: 2 Tim. iv 13 and the Question of St. Paul's Second Captivity.'

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A. H.

T. H. Weir 1 Thess. i 3.' H. Holloway: 2 Kings iv 26.' 'Montefiore
The O.T. and After.' O'Flaherty Health and Religion.' 'P. Gardner
The Practical Basis of Christian Belief." Findlay Byways in Early
Christian Literature.' J. M. P. Smith The Moral Life of the Hebrews.'
Peabody The Apostle Paul and the Modern World.' September. H. A.
Williamson Jeremiah and Jesus in Comparison and Contrast.'
Sayce Babylonian Wisdom.' J. H. Burn: Philippians ii 12.' J. A.
Steele The Pavement.' B. G. Hall: Gal. vi 2, 5.' E. E. Kellett :
A Note on Acts xxvi 28.' Milligan The Church and the N.T. Kay
Semitic Religions.' Scott Holland The Fourth Gospel.' 'Roscoe The
Banyan Kole.' 'T. Walker The Teaching of Jesus.'

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Theology (Vol. VII. Nos. 37-9. July-September 1923. S.P.C.K.). E.G. Selwyn: The Catholic Movement.' Very Rev. W. H. Hutton (Dean of Winchester): 'Dante and Justinian.' W. C. E. Newbolt: 'Thirty Years at St. Paul's.' T. A. Lacey: 'Ecclesiastical Courts,' I (II. August). V. MacMunn From St. Matthew to St. Luke.' J. H. Baxter : Patristica.' N. J. T. M. Needham: 'Hoernlé Matter, Life, Mind and God'; 'W. H. Wood The Religion of Science.' A. D. Kelly: 'Hodgkin The Christian Revolution'; Bp. of Norwich Good Men without Faith.' J. M. Harden: 'Patton Fifty Years of Disestablishment.' T. W. Little: Reynolds English Sects.' B. H. Streeter: Jameson Origin of the Synoptic Gospels.' August. C. Harris: The Christology of Prof. Mackintosh.' H. R. M. Hutt: 'The

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Management of Glebe.' E. P. Boys-Smith: A Glimpse given in the Earliest Gospel.' September. P. N. Waggett: 'God: God and Man.' F. H. Brabant: 'Belief in a Personal Devil.' E. C. Hoskyns: Adversaria Exegetica (Mark xiv 28).' H. H. Kelly: The Condition and Needs of England.' M. Scharlieb: 'Religion and Marriage.' W. K. L. Clarke: 'The Religion of Israel.' E. J. Bicknell: 'T. J. Hardy Christianity Misunderstood.'

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The English Historical Review (Vol. XXXVIII. No. 151. July 1923. Longmans). R. L. Poole : John of Salisbury at the Papal Court.' M. H. Mills: " Adventus Vicecomitum " 1272-1307.' P. Geyl: Frederick Henry of Orange and King Charles I.' Sir R. Lodge : The So-called "Treaty" of Hanau of 1743.' W. Miller: The Chronology of Trebizond.' E. R. Adair : 'The Rough Copies of the Privy Council Register.' J. H. Round: 'Robert Aylett and Richard Argall.' A. T. Bannister: The Caroline Visitations of Hereford Cathedral Church.' A. Gardner: 'Bury History of the Later Roman Empire, 395-565.' F. E. Warren : Plummer Lives of the Irish Saints.' E. W. Watson : Power Medieval English Nunneries.' W. D. Green : 'Romier Le Royaume de Catherine de Médicis and La Conjuration d'Amboise'; 'P. van Dyke Catherine de Médicis'; Nact La Conjuration d'Amboise et Genève.' J. E. Neale Pollen Mary Queen of Scots and the Babington Plot' Steuart Trial of Mary Queen of Scots.' W. B. Wood: Wylly Life of Sir Eyre Coote.' E. L. Woodward: W Boudon Le Saint-Siège et la Russie I. 1814-47.' E. R. A[dair]: 'Acts of the Privy Council, 1613–14.’ The Quarterly Review (No. 476. July 1923. John Murray). Very Rev. W. R. Inge (Dean of St. Paul's): W Catholicism at the Cross-Roads.' D. Gordon : The Badger at Home.' Right Hon. Sir A. Griffith Boscawen: Housing.' H. Granville-Barker: 'The Heritage of the Actor.' Sir C. Bright: An Imperial Air Policy.' Hon. W. H. Triggs: Problems of Acclimatisation.' 'Germany's Capacity to Pay.' J. Freeman : Coventry Patmore.' F. A. W. Gisborne: State Paternalism in the Antipodes.' F. Whyte : 'M. Raymond Poincaré.' J. W. Gordon : The English Dictionary.' G. Drage: The Dole and Demoralisation.' 'The Church and the Prayer Book.'

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Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique (Vol. XIX. No. 3. July 1923. Louvain 40, rue de Namur). L. van der Essen: Hucbald de SaintAmand (c. 840-930) et sa Place dans le Mouvement hagiographique

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