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discovered.' The unwary reader would hardly gather from this statement that the original text of something like two-thirds of the entire book has been recovered. Again the author makes some very loose statements about the extent to which Aramaic had been leavened by Greek elements in the First century A.D. He doubts whether the Aramaic of Palestine at the beginning of the Christian age was materially affected by Greek-and this in spite of the fact that the population of Galilee was largely bilingual (speaking Greek and Aramaic), and that Galileans often bore two names (one Aramaic and one Greek: e.g. Cephas Peter). If the author doubts the extent of this influence let him study the Greek words which have penetrated into Rabbinic Hebrew, and which must have established themselves there before the Second century A.D. Their number and character are quite remarkable.

But in spite of serious blemishes of this kind the book, as a whole, is useful and stimulating. The author has worked with independence, and consulted original authorities. He could greatly improve his own work by a more thorough study of the important subjects he deals with, in the light of the work of modern scholars.

Nile and Jordan: a Survey of the Archaeological and Historical Inter-relations between Egypt and Canaan from the Earliest Times to the Fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. By the Rev. G. A. FRANK KNIGHT, M.A., F.R.S.E. With five maps, appendices, and three indexes. (London: James Clarke. 1921.) 36s. net.

THIS massive volume has been planned on an encyclopaedic scale. Starting from a discussion of the physical connexion between Egypt and Canaan,' and a review of the evidence. regarding palaeolithic and neolithic man in the two countries, the author proceeds to review the history of Egypt (discussing by the way the relations with Canaan) from the earliest dynasties to the Ptolemies, and the later absorption into the Roman Empire. The mass of data and material of all kinds here gathered together is immense, and is eloquent evidence of the indefatigable author's painstaking industry. As a collection of material the volume is decidedly useful, and even valuable. It is furnished with excellent indexes. But it can hardly be said that the author's critical acumen is equal to his industry. His inferences and deductions must be accepted with the greatest

caution on such topics as the identification of the Pharaoh of the oppression and of the Exodus and of the probable date of the latter event. He identifies the Pharaoh of the oppression with Thothmes III. (1515-1461 B.C.) who forced them [the Israelites] to build for him Pithom and Raamses.' But the eminent Egyptian archaeologist, M. Naville, claims to have shewn that Pithom was founded by Rameses II. (1300-1234), who must have been the Pharaoh of the oppression. Mr. Knight does not seem to us to have advanced any substantial arguments sufficient to refute this conclusion, which has been widely accepted by modern scholars.

But while we are obliged to emphasize this caution, we do not desire to suggest that Mr. Knight's discussion and presentation of the data is inadequate or unfair. As a matter of fact he presents the data very fully indeed, and his review of the evidence is often of great value. For instance, the discussion of the vexed question of the identification of the Khabiri of the Tel-el-Amarna letters is excellent. Or, again, his survey of the reign and activities of the heretic' King Akhnaton is admirable.

The volume is fully documented throughout, and the references to special discussions and literature bearing on the subject are really invaluable. In fact, the book constitutes a veritable Thesaurus, and is one of those works which deserve a place in libraries, and to be used as a work of reference. It is, indeed, a veritable treasury of things new and old.'

The People of Palestine. By ELIHU GRANT. (J. B. Lippincott Company.) Ios. 6d. net.

THIS is one of the most useful and adequate books of its kind that we have seen. Books professing to sketch the life and customs of Oriental lands to-day abound; but they are not always distinguished for accuracy and competence. The present volume, which is really an enlarged edition of an earlier work on 'The Peasantry of Palestine,' portrays the village life of Palestine' as most suggestive of the quaint customs of the past.' It claims not to have been compiled from books, but drawn from life,' and we think the book fully justifies the claim. Geographical and local conditions are well described, the life and characteristics of the present population, and, in minute detail, the organization and composition of the village and the village community and its customs. These matters are fully elaborated, and the details given are full of interest (e.g. such as the account

of wedding customs, pp. 53ff.). An excellent feature is the description of actual villages. One of the most interesting chapters in the book discusses the religious basis of the peasant life,' which is illustrated from the veneration manifested by the peasantry towards country shrines, saints, tombs, lamps, ruined churches, sacred trees; and sundry superstitions are also referred to. A description is also given in this chapter of the Samaritans and their present-day sacrifice of the Passover-lambs. A final chapter summarizes recent events and the present condition of the country under the new régime. A number of valuable illustrations add greatly to the book's usefulness.

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Short Egyptian Grammar. By Prof. Dr. G. ROEDER; translated from the German by the Rev. SAMUEL A. B. MERCER, Ph.D., D.D. (Yale University Press; London: Humphrey Milford. 1920.) 10s. 6d. net.

THIS manual has great merits. It is compact, and admirably adapted for the beginner in Egyptian. The difficulties that confront the beginner, owing to the complicated character of Egyptian writing, are, as is well known, considerable. In this volume full account is taken of this fact, and a praiseworthy attempt to produce a really adequate elementary grammar has been made, with a large measure of success. After preliminary discussions about the nature of the language and the script, the grammar proper is dealt with under the headings' phonology (§§ 29-34), ́noun' (including adjective and numerals) (§§ 3548), ' pronoun' (§§ 49-59), ' particles' (§§ 60-70), ' verb ' (§§ 71– 130), and syntax (the sentence)' (§§ 131-141). A list of Hieroglyphs and a vocabulary (pp. 54-79), and a most useful chrestomathy (56 pages), complete the volume.

Some stress is laid by the author on the probable affinities of Egyptian with Semitic. There are unmistakable likenesses, it is true, but also marked differences. Much, however, remains to be done in this department by scholars who are properly equipped with a knowledge of Semitic and Egyptian philology; and doubtless light may be brought in from the Egyptian side on some of the dark places of Semitic linguistic study. Fortunately, though Egyptian writing does not directly afford much aid as regards the vocalization, the student has in Coptic a valuable key to the pronunciation of many old words.

By way of criticism it may be suggested that the translator

in a future edition should introduce greater uniformity in some of his renderings of Egyptian words. Thus, e.g., on p. 9 the word 'msdmt' is translated rouge,' on p. 15 it appears as 'paint,' while in the vocabulary it is rendered black paint.' Several other examples of the same kind of thing could be cited. Sometimes the very much compressed statements could be amplified and illustrated more fully with advantage. There are, unfortunately, not a few misprints. But these, after all, are only minor and easily remediable defects. The book is a great boon, and students will be profoundly grateful both to the author and translator for their really indispensable work. The author himself, in the Preface specially written for the English edition, remarks: America and England have many firstrate Egyptian archaeologists, but comparatively few Egyptian philologists; and accordingly the attention of wider circles has been directed more toward excavations and antiquities than toward Egyptian literature.' The publication of this valuable book ought to prove of real service in promoting the wider study of the Egyptian language and literature.

III. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.

Religion and Modern Thought. By GEORGE GALLOWAY, D.Phil., D.D. (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark.) 8s. net.

THE title of this volume of essays might prove misleading to a reader unaware that it had been selected to describe the general trend of thought of a number of articles and addresses, written at different times and for various purposes, rather than a systematic attempt at theological reconstruction in the light of modern thought.

The essays cover a wide range of subjects, and should thus appeal to readers of different interests. Many of them are explicitly philosophical in character, but the more practical problems which confront the modern adherent of institutional Christianity are faced with great courage and frankness in a paper on Some Aspects of the Present Religious Outlook' and in an interesting essay on 'National Religion,' both of which exhibit soundness of judgement and a sympathetic appreciation of the most divergent standpoints.

Dr. Galloway's most important most important contribution to the theoretical aspect of his subject is undoubtedly contained in his essay on Theological Doctrines and Philosophical Thought,'

the general conclusions of which are applied to a special problem in the next essay on 'The Personality of God.' The view which he advocates, both here and in other parts of the volume, is, in brief, that the basis of theological speculation is a specific type of experience; hence no philosophical reconstruction of theological doctrine can be admitted which fails to satisfy the demands of the religious consciousness. Religious experience cannot, however, legitimately be abstracted from the intellectual constructions with which it is associated. To do this would be to strip the tree of its branches. Doctrine is as essential to experience as experience is to doctrine. We need to steer a middle course between the one-sided intellectualism of the Neo-Hegelians and the anti-metaphysical position of the Ritschlian school. Religion is not merely a matter of the emotions and the will. Like every other department of experience it has its intellectual side, and this involves metaphysical construction. Dr. Galloway attributes the barrenness of much theological speculation to the failure of theologians to recognize that doctrine must be organic to experience. Like every other department of knowledge, theology has had much to learn from the evolutionary methods of biological science. Thought develops from generation to generation through interaction with a changing environment, and, if religious doctrine is to preserve its vitality, it must participate in this develop

The eschatological doctrines of the First century, or the metaphysical speculations influenced by Greek philosophy in the Fourth and Fifth centuries, represent the intellectual interpretation of religious values natural to the age. Neither are adequate embodiments of the values recognized by society to-day. A developing matter must evolve its own specific form of expression. And, since neither theological dogma nor philosophical theory can be final, theologian and philosopher may well co-operate in the attempt to reconcile these interpretations of the religious aspect of experience with the intellectual construction of experience as a whole.

A more controversial topic is discussed in the closing essay which deals with the place of the supernatural, or miraculous, in religion. The retention of the miraculous, Dr. Galloway holds, is essential to the differentiation of Theism from pantheism, but this involves a much wider interpretation of miracle than that ordinarily adopted by the conservative theologians who are concerned to defend it. A recognition of the limited scope of the scientific method will enable the theist

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