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respect as he had been for a long lime, and an instrument of small size had also been paIscd through the stricture.
Removal of Impacled Calculus from thr Urethra.—The following case occurred i under the care of Mr. Callaway, in Guy's! Hospital: A child, aged 2 years, was admitted suffering from extravasation of urine into the scrotum, perineum, etc., which was j ascertained 10 have been the result of clos-! lire of the nreihra by an impacted calculus j The prepuce being enormously distended,i circumcision was first performed, and afterwards Mr. Callaway was able, by means of forceps, to extract the stone by the meatus, from which it had not been far distant. To prevent any further extravasation, a flexible catheter was introduced, and left in. For four days the child made great improvement, but on the fourth, owing to the instroment having got stopped, a second extravasation took place. The catheter was now removed and replaced, and, to relieve the parts into which urine had been infiltrated, free incisions were made into the perineum. The child was extremely ill at the time this measure was adopted, and it afterwards had the symptoms of peritonitis, from which it died three days later. At the post mortem, the tissues around the neck of the bladder and in the vesico-rectal fold were found in a sloughy condition, and the entire peritoneal surface was besmeared with soft, buttery lymph, apparently of very recent exudation. On a most careful examination no perforation of the peritoneum could be found.
Operations for Urethral Stricture.—In Case 2, mentioned last month, the patient has died. Death took place about six weeks after the operation, and was caused apparently by exhaustion. The wound had not closed. No autopsy was permitted. Mr. Holt's patient (Case 1) is doing well; the external fistula is closing; the catheter is regularly used.
There have been performed during the month: Cate 1. A man, aged 69, for six years the subject of stricture, admitted on account of extravasation of urine, which had been gradually increasing for ten days. A staff was passed down to the stricture; and the latter divided. On account of the irritation it occasioned, a catheter could not be borne in the bladder suhsequently.! Death took place seventeen days aferj the operation. Cate 2. By Mr. Fergusson,'
in King's College Hospital. The patient bad a stricture which would admit No 7, but which was very liable to contract, if not under constant treatment. An ahscess having formed between the bladder and rec'um, Mr. Fergusson took the opportunity, when laying it open, to perform also a perineal section of the stricture. The patient is thus far doing welly
Ligature, etc., of Navus—Operations of this class have been performed in cases respectively under the care of Mr. Fergusson, Mr. Cock, Mr. Hilton, Mr. Prescolt Hewett. and Mr. Pollock. None of them require especial mention. A case of large aneurism by anastomosis is under the care of Mr. Lawrence, in St. Bartholomew's, and has been treated with partial success by means of the ligature. We shall report its details at a future time.
Plastic Operations.—Mr. Erichsen's case, mentioned last month, in which Syme's operation for fungous protrusion of the testis had been performed, has done well. The wound is healed, and the patient has been discharged. In 7 cases operations for Harelip have been successfully performed. In 3 cases operations for the removal of deformity from the cicatrices of burns have been performed, and remain under treatment. In a case in St. Mary's Hospital, Mr. I. Baker Brown has performed his usual operation for ruptured perineum. A severe attack of erysipelas followed; and, although now subsided, has left the woman in a rather precarious condition. In a second case, Mr. Brown has operated for vaginal cystocele, and, as far as can yet be judged, with promise of a successful result.
Operation for Imperforate Anus.—On an infant aged three days, in University College Hospital, Mr. Quain performed an operation for imperforate rectum. The obatruction was about an inch and a half from the anus. It was opened by a trocar and canula, and remained patent for a week, when it reclosed. The operation was repeated, and a canula left in for some days. Since the last it has remained open for three weeks, but appears to be again contracting.
Tenotomy—Mr. Paget's case, mentioned lost month, continues under treatment. In several ordinary cases of talipes, the operation has been successfully performed. In a case of fracture of the leg, under Mr. Cock's care, in Guy's Hospital, it became , on account of the difficulty of keeping the parts in apposition, to divide the tendo-Achillis. The measure has been followed by good success.—Med, Times and Gaz. June 24, 1654.
144 SKETCHES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF MEDICAL QUACKERY.
SKETCHES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF MEDICAL QUACKERY.
English Law and Quackery.—The extraordinary decisions which the English courts of law so frequently present us with, when the subject of them in any way relates to the medical profession, is one of the greatest anomalies of the age. In moat civilized nations a medical practitioner is obliged to hold a diploma, which indicates that he has been educated for the profession, or that his competency has been tested by an examination, and he who falsely assumes the title of doctor or surgeon is visited with summary punishment. Again, in most codes of law, culpable homicide is a crime; but what is culpable homicide, if it be not destroying life by administering powerful drugs, when unacquainted with their properties / Yet such is the absurdity of English law, that it has been proved over and over again, that if, for the purpose of gain, a deadly poison be so administered as to cause death, and the individual prescribing it plead ignorance of medicine, both judge and jury consider there is no harm done. But if a regularly educated medical practitioner commit a mistake, heavy damages are awarded, and should nialpraxis be followed by death, it is with the utmost difficulty he can escape the penalty of manslaughter. The result to be deduced from this state of things is, obviously, that it is safer in the eye of the English law to be ignorant than skilful, to impose on the pub He than serve them faithfully, to practise the grossest quackery than exercise one's profession honourably. Need we be surprised that Charlatanism, under such circumstances, should flourish, and that the public should at length look with indulgence on crimes which are not only not repressed, but are positively encouraged by the state?
Another singular illustration of this state of things has lately occurred. An individual named Lewis Bossy represents himself as an M. D. of the University of Edinburgh, and hangs up a forged diploma in his surgery, to impose upon all and sundry. In
this capacity, among other things, he doea not hesitate to sign schedules of individuals applying to insurance companies, whose lives are insured on the faith of his representations. The validity of these insurances is, we believe, to be made the subject of another trial, and the mischief he may have occasioned in this way is yet to be ascertained. Bnt this impostor, on the 8th ultimo, was tried at the Central Criminal Court in London for a misdemeanor, he " having uttered as true a false diptoma of Edinburgh, entitling him to practise and assume the title of 'Doctor of Medicine.'" The offence was distinctly proved; and "the jury, after a little hesitation, returned a verdict of Guilty, but with a strong recommendation to the merciful consideration of the Courtj" Whereupon the Judge, (Mr. Baron Martin) gives utterance to lbs following sage and indisputable remarks: "It was undoubtedly an offence to utter a diploma like this, and persons should understand that if such a document was hung up in their houses where patients might see it, it was an uttering in law, and rendered them liable to the consequences. He could conceive cases where very great mischief might arise from an individual holding himself out falsely to be a physician. No man ought to trade upon a false bottom ; and, undoubtedly, the fact of a person professing to have a diploma from the University of Edinburgh, where it was known that a very severe examination had to be undergone, was calculated to give a man a position, and create a confidence, which no man ought to possess unless he was really entitled to it." j The learned Judge is then reported to j have passed sentence upon this man who he could conceive might, by his gross fraud, i commit great mischief, in the following j terms: "It was his intention on the prej sent occasion merely to pass a nominal (sentence, which was one of two days' imprisonment; and the defendant under that sentence would be entitled to his immediate discharge; but he hoped the present proceeding woujd have the effect of putting a stop to such practices in future."
Whether such a heavy sentence will produce the effect the learned Judge anticipates may be much doubted; for, were not the whole proceeding a melancholy truth, it might well be regarded as a preposterous burlesque.
In another case, where a man placed the letters M. R. C S. after his name, without a diploma, be defended himself by saying that he was a Member of the Reformed College of Surgeons, of New York !— Monthly Journ. Med. Sci.\ May 1854.
A French Bone,Setter.—A bone setter named Ricnarn, famous in the neighbourhood of Napol6on Vendee, but still more famous by having been fined five francs, which made him n martyr and increased his practice five fold, was consulted on Jane 4, 1853, by a farmer of the commune of St. Denis, named Lachavasse, who complained, after a heavy fall, of violent pain in the neck. The bone-setter, meeting him, made bim enter a neighbouring cottage, and said that he would soon put his neck right. He seized with both hands the pattent's head, and by a rapid motion from left to right, and from right to left, he three times turned the head over the shoulder. At the third time a crack was heard, and the bone-setter exultingly exclaimed—" It is done; the neck is reduced." But at this very instant the patient was seized with paralysis of the arms and legs; his speeeh became very difficult; he complained of violent pain, and died the next day, firmly convinced of the skill of the operator, and asserting to the last that his neck was properly set.
Examination of the body showed an effu •ion of blood at the level of the second and third vertebtte, the ligaments between which were stretched and torn; there was another effusion between the cerebellum and the base of the skull, evidently arising from lesion of the cord and its membranes. It was concluded that death had been produced by these injuries, which were themselves the result of the rough treatment to which the patient had been subjected by the bone setter. The paralysis had been instantaneous; as no symptoms of it had appeared after the fall.
Being tried for homicide through imprudence, Richard endeavoured to prove his skill as an operator, and produced several witnesses, who earnestly declared that they had to thank him for his treatment of them. They were all astonished at the lowness of his fees, and his high talent; and could with difficulty understand how one could dare to prosecute a man who possessed the secret of curing wry-neck, sprains, dislocations, and fractures. One of the witnesses drag
ged himself before the tribunal to give evidence, when the following dialogue took place:
President—Did Richard set your leg?
Witness—Yes, M. le President.
President—But you cannot congratulate yourself on the operation, for you are sttll lame.
Witness—It is true that the leg is more than four inches shorter than the other; but I might have been much more crippled.
The strong faith of the witness provoked general merriment. The tribunal condemned Richard to be imprisoned for four months, and to pay a fine of sixty francs.— iti t,. Thirap. du Midi.
Br. Dizi Crosby's acquittal on charge of Mai-Praxis—We rejoice to learn that the result of the new trial granied to Dr. Dixi Crosby, of Hanover, N. H., has been a triumphant verdict of acquittal. At a former trial, an unjust verdict was given against him for $900 damages. (See this Journal for August, 1853, p. 127.) Dr. Crosby has, however, temporarily suffered great injustice from the first verdict, and doubtless Iirs been subjected to great anxiety and expense. For there the law will afford him no redress. The prosecutor in such a case, when failing to prove hid charge, should surely be subjected to heavy penalties. This may not be in accordance with law, but it certainly it with justice.
Health of our Cities.—The health of our principal northern cities is, we are glad to state, improving. The cholera, which, however, never existed, to any extent, in Philadelphia, is rapidly disappearing, and the mortality from all diseases has considerably diminished. The largest mortality in any one week was in that ending on the 29th of July last, when it amounted to 573. Since this period it has rapidly decreased, and for the week ending on the 26ih of August, it reached only 316, of which but 22 were from cholera.
In New York, the mortality has also diminished. The most faial we.:k was that ending August 5th, when the mortality
reached 1,148, 302 being from cholera. ' of tho two cities, and in estimating ilteir The mortality for the weekending the 26ih comparative salubrity it must be borne in of Auiust, was 765; 131 of the deaths being mind that the population of Philadelphia is from cholera. j about 500,000, that of New York about
The following table exhibits the mortality , 650,000:—
The number of deaths in Boston, last week, was 135, of which 26 were from cholera, an increase over the previous week.
Our southern cities, we regret to learn, are in a less satisfactory condition of health. Yellow fever is said to be prevailing in New Orleans, Savannah, and Charleston.
There were 60 deaths from yellow fever in the Charity Hospital at New Orleans, during the week ending August 19th.
In Savannah, the disease is prevailing in a very malignant form, and to a considerable extent, and some cases have even occurred in pans of the city always considered as the most healthy.
We have reliable information that cases of the disease have appeared in Charleston, though as yet it has not become decidedly epidemic.
Oneida Caunty Medical Society.—At the annual meeting of the Medical Society of the County of Oneida, held July 11, 1954, the following resolutions were adopted :—
Whereas, Dr. Nathan D. Benedict, an esteemed member of the medical profession, and late Superintendent of the New York State Lunatic Asylum, located in this city, has been induced, unexpectedly, to resign the position which he has filled with distinguished usefulness to the insane, and honor and benefit to the State; Therefore
Resolved, That we greatly regret that any circumstances should have existed in
fluencing him to resign a plsce, for which his high professional qualifications, his great moral purity, and his gentlemanly deportment, pre-eminently qualified him.
Resolved, That the efforts he has made in the arduous duties of his office, and for the benefit of the Institution committed to his care, entitle him to the highest praise and the lasting gratitude of the people of the State of New York.
Resolved, That we part from him with reluctance, and shall not soon forget his kind, gentle, and skilful treatment of the insane, nor his enlightened government of an institution which required the highest personal and professional qualifications for its management, and that, wherever he may go, he will carry with him our warmest wishes for his continued health, prosperity, and usefulness in that department of professional life, fur which nature and education so eminently qualify him.
Resolved, that a copy of the foregoing resolutions, signed by the President and Sej cretary, be furnished to Dr. Benedict, and , that the same be published.
S. G. WOLCOTT, Fresident. j M. M. Bago, Secretary.
j Dr. Benedict was admitted a member of (the Medical Society of the County of Oneida, N, Y. soon after his appointment ; as Physician and Superintendent of the i N.Y. State Lunatic Asylum.
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. j
Essence of Turpentine, hy the Iatralrptic i Mtthod,far the Cure of Cholera.—Dr. Elie j Bellencontre sent to the Gazette dee Ho-! fitaux last January, the particulars of a very severe case of cholera, treated and cured by frictions of the essence of turpentine upon the vertebral column. The following case has occurred since the publication of the last report:—
Madame Berthau, aged 49, of nervous temperament, who had not menstruated for I year, accompanied to the Hospital St. Antoine, on the 28th of April, about mid-; day, one of the domestics, who was attacked by cholera. Upon her return from the hos- j pital about five in the evening, she was; seized with watery evacuations, which persisted through the whole night; they were so numerous that neither the patient nor those who assisted could reckon the num- j her. About five A. M. cramps in both; upper and lower extremities, and also vomiting, supervened. Then there was suppression of the urine, and coldness of the entire body. About nine A. M. the family sent for Dr. A. Thierry ; but, as he was abaent, Dr. Bellencontre arrived in his place, and he found the patient in the following state:! Face bippocratic and blue ; no radial pulse; suppression of the urine ; abundant and co- j pious evacuations, which passed involun- j tarily; frequent vomiting; cramps so in tense that they roused the patient from her torpor, and made her cry out; the skin, having lost its elasticity, retained the folds! into which it was thrown after the cramps; had suhsided. The body looked like that j of a skeleton.
For half an hour the oil of turpentine was nibbed, first along the vertebral column, j and then over the whole body. Twenty drop* were administered, with warm water, internally. Then the husband was directed to continue the frictions every quarter of an hour, or hour, until the surface of the body became red and in a glow. Towards evening there was a marked improvement; the warmth of surface had returned; the pulse! had acquired both frequency and power, j The skin assumed a red, coppery colour;; the face had recovered animation. She confessed that she had no consciousness of what had passed. The evacuations were considerably diminished, both in amount and frequency.
The frictions were continued, and a solution of gum arabic was given in abundance as a drink, with the object of distending the alimentary canal, that the natural secretions might the more readily be restored.
The case terminated favourably, and the author concludes by remarking that he could enumerate others of a similar nature, two of which especially he mentions in justification of the anti-choleric value of this therapeutic agent—Med. Times and Gaz. July 15, from Gazette dee Hopitaux, June 22, 1854.
Tne Cnolera.—This epidemic is now prevailing over a very considerable portion of the globe. It hss reappeared with considerable virulence in different parts of Great Britain, and is prevailing in various parts of Italy, Turkey, France, and Russia, in Mauritius, the West Indies, and at different points over a considerable extent of North America.
Landon. — The disease has suddenly sprung into activity in this metropolis. For the week ending on the 15th of July, the number of deaths was only 5. In the following week (ending 22d July), the number ruse to 26 j in the week ending July 29, the mortality from it increased to 133; and in the following week, ending August 5, to 399.
Scotland.—Cholera raged, at the last accounts, with some severity at Glasgow, and has made its appearance in Edinburgh, and also in Skye.
St. Petersburg.—According to the official returns, there were 113 new cases of cholera, and 46 deaths on the 14th of July. There were, on the 9th of July, 670 cases of cholera, 74 of which occurred on that day, and DO deaths; on the 10th there were 55 fresh cases, and 30 deaths.
Count WoronzorfDaschkoff, Grand Master of Ceremonies died of the disease on the 8th of July, at Peterhoff.
Baltic Fleet.—There have been about 150 cases of cholera in the Baltic squadron, and about 48 deaths, it is said in a letter from n surgeon, dated Barro Sound, July 18. The Aueterlitz, French Screwliner, has lost 54 or 56 men, including one officer. A very singular feature regarding the disease is, that the screw ships only have suffered from the epidemic, the sailing vessels escaping with impunity.