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CONTAINING

RULES OF SYNTAX AND MODELS

FOR

ANALYZING AND TRANSPOSING;

TOGETHER WITH

SELECTIONS OF PROSE AND POETRY

FROM WRITERS OF STANDARD AUTHORITY.

BY ALLEN H. WELD, A. M.

LUTHOR OF LATIN LESSONS AND READER, AND AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY

PORTLAND: LIBRARY

3474172

FIFTEENTH EDITION.

SANBORN & CARTER,

1848.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1847, by ALLEN H. WELD, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Maine.

SYNOPSIS

OF GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS.

SUBJECT.

The SUBJECT of a sentence
may be a noun or pronoun; a
verb in the infinitive: a clause:
or any word or letter of which
something can be affirmed.

The Subject, whose meaning is modified by one or more words,' is called the MODIFIED (or logical) SUBJECT.

SIMPLE

Ferdinand, He,

See Gram. §§ 35, 36, 37, 28, 34, or Parsing Book, pages 5,6.

MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.
The MODIFIERS of the subject may
be a noun in apposition: an adjec-
tive; a preposition with its object
(adjunct); a participle; a verb in the
infinitive; a relative clause; and rare-
ly an adverb.

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MODIFIERS OF THE SUBJECT.

the king,

the marquis of Cadiz,

To die

in peace,
That you have wronged me by your denial,
Evergreens
An,

The rose,
Those,

SENTENCES.

only, among the trees, called an article,

PREDICATE.

The PREDICATE of a
sentence may be a verb;
or the verb be with any
word or expression con-
nected with it, to com-
plete an assertion.

so fair and beautiful to-day,

who are obliging,

1

The Predicate, whose meaning is modified by one or more words, is called the MODIFIED (or logical) PREDICATE.

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MODIFIERS OF THE PREDICATE, The MODIFIERS of the predicate may be a noun in the objective case, (if the verb is transitive;) a verb in the infinitive; an adverb; a preposition with its object (adjunct); a clause; and rarely an adjective.

MODIFIED PREDICATES.

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MODIFIERS OF THE PRED.
a council at Cordova.
from a distance, the peril of
the king.
of the good.

from your own admission.
verdant, in the winter.
from a Saxon word.
to-morrow.

to be accommodated.

MODIFICATION OF WORDS.

VERB OR PARTICIPLE.

ADJECTIVE.

A verb or participle may be mod-
ified

An adjective may be
modified

1. By an adverb; as, Very
rich.

COMPOUND SENTENCES.

A Compound Sentence is made up of two or more
simple sentences joined by connectives. CONNECTIVES
are, 1. Conjunctions; 2. Conjunctive Adverbs; 3.
Relative words. See Gram. $112, or Parsing Book,
pages 6. 7.

NOUNS INDEPENDENT.

Nouns which have no grammatical connection with the subject or predicate of a sentence, are said to be independent; as, O virtue!

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ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES.

A Sentence may be analyzed by dividing it into the parts of which it is composed, and explaining their relations.

viz: the Subject or Modified Subject, the Predicate 1. Divide the sentence into its two general parts, or Modified Predicate.

2. Explain the mutual relations, and point out the office of every word which has any modifying influence.

ADVERB.

An adverb may be modified 1. By another adverb; as, Most assuredly.

2. By a preposition with its object (adjunct); as, Agreeably to nature, most of all.

PREPOSITION.

A preposition may be modified
I. By an adverb; as, Fcr be-
yond.
By a noun in the objective
case; as, Over the hills.

2.

CLASSIFICATION OF SEN

TENCES.

1. Declarative; as, I write. 2. Interrogative; as, Do you write?

3. Imperative; as, Buy the

truth.

4. Subjunctive; as, If it rains. 5. Exclamatory; as, How much he resembles his father!

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PREFACE.

THE selections which compose the body of the following work are so arranged as to constitute a gradual course of Exercises in Analyzing and Parsing.

The Rules of Syntax are taken from WELD'S ENGLISH GRAMMAR by permission of the Publishers, and to these rules, and also to the Grammar from which they are taken, references are occasionally made, to assist the learner in explaining idiomatic or difficult passages.

As the extracts are from some of the most accomplished and approved writers, the Ornaments of style, Figures of Rhetoric and Scanning, may be profitably attended to by advanced classes.

The book may be used by learners in almost any stage of attainment after the elementary principles of Grammar are understood. The work is designed to take the place of Pope's Essay, Thomson's Seasons, Young's Night Thoughts, and other entire poems, which are used as parsing books in Schools. A variety in the selections, it is believed, will be more profitable and interesting to the learner, than any single work can be, which exhibits no gradation in style, and the peculiarities of one writer only.

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A. H. W.

RULES OF SYNTAX.

1. Syntax treats of sentences, and teaches the proper construction of words in forming them.

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES.

Sentences are of four kinds, declaratory, imperative, interrogative and conditional.

A declaratory sentence is one in which any thing is simply affirmed or denied of a subject; as, Time flies; he will not understaud.

An imperative sentence is one in which a command is expressed; as, Buy the truth, and sell it not.

An interrogative sentence is one in which a question is asked; as, Who hath believed our report?

A conditional sentence is oue in which something contingent or hypothetical is expressed; as, If it rains; though he slay me.

Sentences are either simple or compound. A simple senlence consists of but one proposition; a compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences.

The simple propositions which make up a compound sentence, are called clauses or members.

The leading clause is one on which the other members depend.

A dependent clause is one which makes complete sense only in connection with another clause.

SIMPLE SENTENCES.

A simple sentence contains only one subject or nominative, and one predicate.

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