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HYMN AND TUNE BOOK,
THE SERVICE OF SONG IN THE HOUSE
OF THE LORD.
PUBLISHED BY MASON BROTHERS.
BOSTON: MASON & HAMLIN. CHICAGO: ROOT & CADY.
Ental ad, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1959, og
Libe Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New look
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It is the purpose of this work to furnish suitable tunes for the hymns in “THE SABBATH HYMN BOOK," and to bring the hymns and tunes together, so that both may be easily seen at the same opening of the volume. The tunes are designed to meet the capacity and wants of congregations, though it is hoped they will be found to possess interest and appropriateness for choirs. Every hymn contained in THE SABBATH Hymy Book will be found here, and in connection with each hymn, or at the same opening of the book, one or more appropriate tunes All the tunes are also published in a separate volume, entitled THE SABBATU Tune Book. The series therefore consists of three volumes:
THE SABBATH Hyun BOOK, containing IIymns alone.
Two principal methods have prevailed, to a greater or less degree, in the Service of Song in Chris. tian worsliip; that of the whole Congregation, and that of a select Choir. The Congregational was the primitive method, and the only one known in the earlier history of the Church. The method of singing by a choir came into the Church at a later period, with wealth, power, and worldly greatness, and it has been her attendant rather in temporal prosperity, than in poverty and adversity.
At the time of the Reformation, Congrégational Singing had become extinct, and the more artistic manner of choirs, consisting mostly of an inferior order of the clergy, singing in a language unknown to the people, had taken its place. Luther, Calvin, Knox, and others, took early measures to rescue the singing service in public worship from the hands of the clergy, and to reinstate it as an exercise for the people. As the abuses of the Romish church had led to the rejection of chanting (the primitive form of Church Song) the Psalms wero translated, or hymns were written in a stanzaic form, and adapted to a simple but dignified form of melody, with special reference to the capabilities of the people. The union of the whole assembly in the exercise was regarded as essential. Other liturgical forms were rejected; but this new one of a metrical Psalmody, for the people's simultaneous utterance of praise and prayer, was received with great favor, and almost universally practiced. It was no attempt on the part of the Reformers to introduce an artistic manner of song, but, on the contrary, a very plair one, a “ highway" of Psalmody, in which “ the wayfaring man, though a fool, should not err."
The Congregational method, thus restored to the churches, was brought to this country by the Protestant Fathers. It continued to be their only method for about a century and a half, It is not sur. prising that during this period, amidst the deprivations which the new settlements experienced, attention to song should have been neglected, nor that, neglected by generation after generation, the ability for it should have been well nigh lost. In the early part of the last century the very low condition of the singing in public worship began to attract the attention of some of the friends of religion, and measures were taken by a few of the leading clergymen and others for reform. Hitherto all the singing in the American churches had been unisonous, the melody only having been sung ; but in 1720 a book of tunes in three parts, “ Cantus," "Medius" and "Basus," was published by Rev. Thomas Walter. The harmonizing of the tunes in parts undoubtedly grew out of the fact that the more elaborate service of choirs had always taken that form both in the Lutheran and the English church. In the Protestant churches of Europe generally, motrical Psalmody continues to this day to be sung, as it was originally, in unison, and it is at least doubtful whether parts in harmony for the choir and unison for the congregation, would not still be the best arrangement for Church Song. This new arrangement of tunes in parts led to the formation of choirs. At first, they were introduced only as helps to Congregational Singing, but this gradually yielded, as it had done before, and the new method advanced withi sure and steady progress, until towards the close of the last century it had become the almost exclusive method of Church Song.
And now, within ten or fifteen years, Congregational Singing is again attracting attention, and many persons, especially those who look for a higher religious power in Psalmody, are turning w it, as a remedy for the evils which have grown out of the exclusive method of choirs, and as
promising to restore to the Church the almost lost religious aid of song. It is to be regretted that somo, !their zeal for Congregational Singing, have supposed it necessary to set their faces against choirs, and have even gone so far as to reject the services of such associations. The fact that choirs have, in a great degree, failed to present a method of song truly religious in its influence, is not to be attributed wholly to them; but probably quite as much to those clergymen and people who have mistaken a mere musical excitement for the "quickening and raising up of the affections to God.”
That it is unsafe to depend exclusively upon choirs, is abundantly proved in the history of the Church The great danger of such a dependence is, that the whole service will degenerate into a mere atteinpt at musical display. Nor is it safe to trust to the Congregational method alone, for without constant care, the singing will then be very liable to fall into neglect, and become uninteresting, ineffective, and even wearisome. Let the two methods exist together, strengthening one another, Congregational Singing can not be dispensed with by those who seek for the religious influence of Church Song; and choirs may do much to promote the true service of Psalmody, by their guidance and encouragement of universal song. Whenever it is practicable, then, let the people who are desirous of Congregational Singing avail themselves of the advantages to be derived from such choirs as formed from among themselves, and disposed to exert a religious influence in the singing exercises, will enlist the sympathy and cooperation of all the people.
But that the present efforts for Congregational Singing, or that any efforts for the improvement of the Service of Song be in any satisfactory degree successful, we regard it as essential that both methods be practically understood—at least by those who guide this service—since any attempt to build up the one on the basis of the other must, necessarily, in a great degree fail. Those who seek for Congregational Singing on the principles of Choir Singing, will probably soon give it up as impracticabie, and return again to the Choir Singing as the only available method.
The Congregational is nature's method of praise. It is in a great degree independent of art culture, being indeed above art. It is adapted alike to the voices of the young and the old, of the uncultivated and of the cultivated. It engages all in the simultaneous exercise of the same emotions, furnishes something for every one to do, admits of no listeners, and thus excludes that bane of all true worship, criticism. As individual voices are lost in the chorus of the many, one is naturally led to feel his own insignificance. That essential feature of Chorus Singing, the blending of voices, by which the impurity of individual tones is neutralized, and dissonance harmonized, and in which consists in a great degree its strength and its beauty, is obtained almost without effort when many voices, (even fisty or a hundred,) join in one melody. It is adapted to awaken within us ideas of greatness. It belongs to the sublime in tone; the sublime in nature rather than in art. It may be compared to the mountains, which owe their majesty, not to their fertile soil, nor to any elaboration of architectural skill, but to that Power which commanded the light to shine out of darkness, and brought up from the depths the rough and diversified materials in which consists the "strength of the hills." The mountains are not more necessary to fit the earth to be the habitation of man than is this great method of song to the highest development of that religious life which is perfected through Psalmody.
Choir Singing is the method of art; and although for the common purposes of Church Song no very high degree of artistic attainment is required, yet, that Choir Singing which is worthy of the name, must be the result of the proper training of a suitable number of persons who have a more tha: ordinary portion of intuitive musical ability. It belongs to the beautiful. It depends upon flowing melody, with measure symmetrical, in such soft, elegant, and delicate style as to awaken delight. It may be regardeil as one of Zion's “beautiful garments," so that in the proper union of the two methods, it may be said of the Service of Song, "strength and beauty are in the sanctuary."
That we may, if possible, throw still further light upon a subject which we consider of vital importance to the success of Church Song, we will mention some conditions which are indispensable to Choir Singing, but not to Congregational Singing.
1. It is not indispensable, though it is desirable, in order to qualify one to take a part in Congregational Singing, that one should be able to read written music. Let properly conducted singing schools be maintained, and let all be encouraged to attend them; and especially let all children receive, while they are yet young, appropriate vocal training, and be practically taught the elements both of music and notation. And let all be encouraged, whether they have learned any thing of singing or not, to join vocally in the Psalmody as a religious exercise, regarding it as their duty and privilege.
2. Purity of tone is not indispensable, though it is desirable, to qualify one to unite in Congregational Singing. Although one's tone may be of a nasal or guttural quality, he is not to be denied tho privilege of singing his Maker's praises in the congregation of the people. Yet it may often be the duty of others to exercise forbearance, and to do whatever circumstances allow for the removal of the cause of offense by suitable attempts at cultivation. And it is possible that there may be cases where it may be the duty of one to engage only mentally in the exercise, if thereby one may cease to give pain to another.
3. It is not indispensable, though it is desirable, that one should be able to sing in perfect tune, in order that he may join the Congregational Psalmody. There are very few persons whose intonation is not more or less faulty, but although one may not sing individually in tune, there is a "sympathy in sounds" by which, when a multitude sing together, dissonance is resolved, and voices are drawn into unison.
4. It is not indispensable, though it is desirable, that one should be able to appreciate the divisions of time, or, as it is more commonly expressed, to keep time, in order to engage in Congregational Singing. If such a natural, easy movement is taken as is alone well adapted to the singing of a promis. cuous assembly, there will be no difficulty in keeping together, and however feeble may be one's perception of a regular movement, he may safely trust his voice with the voices of the many.
5. It is not indispensable, though it is desirable, in order to unite in Congregational Singing, that one's articulation or pronunciation should be exactly right. The words are, indeed, of the utmost importance, the indispensable part of a hymnal service, and although we may join devotionally in the act of worship in song, even when we do not know the particular subject of the hymn, as where the service is in a foreign language, yet we can not be in union with the assembly in definite thought and emotion unless we are in possession of the words. Still, no one should be excluded from Congregational Singing on account of an inaccurate articulation, whether this arise from a natural defect in the organs of speech, or from want of proper culture.
6. Artistic application of the laws of accent, emphasis, and general expression, is not indispensable, though it is important, to qualify one to join in Congregational Singing. There should indeed be appropriate expression ; but this in one method is quite a different thing from what it is in the other. The expression of the mountain is not more unlike that of the valley, than the legitimate expression of Congregational Singing is unlike that of Choir Song. Let the singing be habitually regarded as a truly religious act; let the people, old and young, be led to engage in it as such; lot this one point be taught and guarded from the pulpit; let God be sought habitually and found in the Psalm, and it Fill not lack a suitable expression; one consisting not so much in the mechanical observance of piano, forte, crescendo, diminuendo, or any dynamic notation, as in the more legitimate conditions of a good tonal atterance. Let the mouth speak "out of the abundance of the heart," and it will be likely to be done with much more propriety than any utterance, however perfect, which arises from the mere observance of rules of art.
As two principal methods of singing have prevailed in the service of the Christian Church, so three distinct forms of song have arisen: THE CHANT, THE ANTHEM, THE METRICAL TUNE.
The Chant is supposed to have been the primitive form of Church Song; the same in which the Saviour himself engaged, when, after he had instituted the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, ho 9ng a hymn with his disciples, before he went out into the Mount of Olives. In its simple state it consists in tho intoned recitation, or cantilated delivery of the words of the Psalm, being the nearest approach to an impassioned and dignified reading, which a retained pitch, or the absence of inflection will allow. In chanting, the Psalms may be sung in the very words of the sacred Scriptores, the highest form of lyric poetry; metrical arrangement being unnecessary. The Chant is adapted to a clear enunciation of the words, and thus tends to make music subordinate to thought, and song to religious worship. It is totally dissimilar to all the forms of secular music, and seems to preclude the very idea of display. It leaves the mind open to the full impression of the sacred text, and is most favorable to a heartfelt expression. It furnishes the most simple form in wbich many voices may unite in a simultaneous utterance of words, and hence, is admirably adapted to the Congregational method, to which it properly belongs. Children easily acquire it and take great delight in it; and it is a most interesting form of worship in Sabbath Schools, as we have tested by long experience.
These remarks, however, are applicable to Chanting in its primitive use, and not to such a hurried, * confused and disorderly chattering of the words," or to such a "careless, irreverent manner, without a spark of feeling," as, an English writer observes, is often heard in cathedrals; or to such abuses ag have grown out of the modern double and florid chants, and from which Chanting has well nigh ceased to be regarded as belonging to the Congregational method.
The word ANTHEM is supposed to be derived from the same Greek root as is antiphony, which signifies the alternate or responsive manner of singing said to have been introduced into the Western