Imatges de pàgina
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from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Vriddhi substitute. Thus, from chi, to gather,” may come the base of the 1st and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyişhye, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (chetāhe, &c., cheshye, &c.). Similarly from hu and kri may come hāvi and kāri (hūvitāhe, kāritāhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final ā and inserted i. Thus, from , “ to give," may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is (dātāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.*

In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive, the inflection being that of the atm.

The Third Preterite of Passives. 114. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Vriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass. achūyi (achāyishi, &c., form 1. p. 81.) although the base in the ātm. of the primitive is uche (acheshi, fc., form 2.). So also, from hu and kri may come ahāvi and akāri (ahāvishi, akārishi, form 1.), although the bases in the atm. of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that y be interposed between final ū and inserted i. Thus, from may come adāyi (adāyishi, fc.), although the base in the atm. of the primitive is adi (adishi, &c.).

* This explanation of the passive, although at variance with that of Wilkins and Bopp, rests on the authority of Pāṇini (6. 4. 62.), and the Siddhānta kaumudī.

+ The root gy, however, in the passive, may be Efstate, efsa, as well as que, q ; and 7 may be fata, o u , as well as E, faut; and

€ may be alfent, fed, as well as FTATE, HET.

But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyishi or acheshi), except in the 3d pers. sing. where the terminations ishta and şta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered”; ahāvi,“ it was sacrificed”; akāri, “it was done "; adāyi, “it was given."

If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 3d pret. ātm. of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. sing., where i (3) being substituted for the terminations ishta of the 1st form and sta of the 2d form, invariably requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial vowel.* Hence, from tan, the form of the 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atunishi, atanishthāh, atāni; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthāh, akshepi ; from vid, avedishi, avedishthāh, avedi. This 3d pers. sing. of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently found, even in the simplest writings.

The Benedictive and Conditional of Passives. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last ; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, provided that, before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final ā. Thus, from chi may come the bases chāyi and achāyi (chāyişhiya, achāyişhye); from hu, hāvi and ahāvi; from kri, kāri and akāri ; from , dāyi and adāyi. But cheshiya, acheshye, hoshiya, ahoshye, fc., the forms belonging to the ātm. of the primitive, are equally admissible in the passive.

Passive Infinitive Mood. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with shak, “ to be able.” In the Hitopadesha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles ārabdha and nirūpita.

Pussive Verbs from Causal Bases. 115. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the affix ay is rejected, but the other changes of the root are retained. Thus, from the causal base pātay (root pat, "to fall”) is formed the passive causal base pāty (pātye, “ I am caused to fall"); so also, from sthāpay (sthā, “ to stand”), sthāpy (sthāpye, “I am made to stand”); from pāthay (path, “ to read"), pāthy (pāthye, “I am taught to read”) from 997 (FTT “ to know"), gą (po “ I am caused to know.”)

* This rests on the authority of Pānini, the Siddhanta kaumudi, and the Bhatti kāvya (15. 64, 65.).

INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES,

OR VERBS OF THE FIRST NINE CONJUGATIONS.
Before passing to the exhibition in full of the inflection of particular verbs under each conjugation, a synopsis is here
given of the inflection, Ist, of the primitive; 2dly, of the causal; 3dly, of the passive forms of the nine roots,
Ty budh,to know," of the 1st conjugation; jo nrit, to dance," of the 4th; fear dish, “to point out,” of the 6th; fag vid,
" to know," of the 2d; ghu, "to sacrifice," of the 3d; fechi, to gather," of the 5th; far bhid, to break,” of the 7th ;

tan, “to stretch,” of the 8th; and q , “ to purify,” of the 9th. In this page is exhibited the inflection in the
conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called regular ; the base, which is always the same throughout
all the persons, being to the left of the terminations. In the two pages which follow this, is exhibited the inflection in
the conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called irregular; the base, which varies in different
persons, being above the terminations. After this, all distinction of conjugation is done away, and in the pages which
succeed, the inflection of the nine roots in the non-conjugational tenses of the primitive, and in the causal and passive,
is exhibited, one below the other, in regular order.

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dhi Jāni

tu lāva tam tām āma ta antu ai shwa tām jāvahai āthām Termina

ātām āmahai dhwum utam r in 9. hi

in 3. in 2.7. tions of the omit. in

atu 11
IMPERATIVE

6.8.
* An anomalous form of the 2d pret. of the root vid, “to know,” is sometimes used for the present. Thus, sing. veda, vettha, veda ; dual vidwa,
viduthuh, vidatuh; plur. vidma, vida, viduh. Cf. (as noticed by Bopp, Comp. Gr. Prof. Eastwick's translation) the Greek orða or Foida from the root
Fid, also used with a present signification. Cf. also vidmah with rồuev, vittha with sote, and viddhi with ole.

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