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the 1 of the infinitive. Hence, by substituting um for the final ā of the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st future, the infinitive is at once obtained. See p. 80. Thus, tyaktā, tyaktum; prashțā, prashtum (ug); sodhā, sodhum (HTC), &c. &c.
CAUSALS, OR VERBS OF THE 10th CONJUGATION.
107. Every root in the language may, in theory, take what is called a causal form ; and, moreover, practically, this is a most useful form of the root, that may be used to give either a causal or active sense to a primitive verb. Thus the primitive verb bodhati, “ he knows,” becomes in the causal atvefn bodhayati, “he causes to know," or "informs"; and the primitive kshubhyati, “he is shaken,” becomes kshobhayati," he shakes.” This form, also, may sometimes give the sense of allowing or permitting, as hārayati, “he allows to take"; nāshayati, “he suffers to perish."
The Terminations of Causals. a. These, in the conjugational tenses, are precisely those of regular primitive verbs, p. 63. Of the non-conjugational tenses, the second preterite necessarily conforms to the general scheme in its terminations, inasmuch as the tense itself results from the annexation of the 2d preterite of some one of the auxiliaries as, bhū or kri, to a particular form of the causal base. In the two futures, the benedictive and conditional, the terminations are precisely those of the general scheme. In the third preterite they are those of the third form (p. 81.).
Formation of the Base of Causals. b. The first step in the formation of the base is the addition of ay to the root ; and this affix is retained throughout all the tenses, conjugational and non-conjugational, excepting only the third preterite, and excepting the benedictive par.
Conjugational Tenses. c. If a root end in a vowel, Vriddhi is required : as, from nī, nai, forming, with the affix ay, the base nāyay, r. 8. (pres. afregift
Non-conjugational Tenses. The changes of the root requisite to form the base of the conjugational tenses are continued in all of these, the ay only being rejected in the 3d pret. and in the benedictive parasmai.
Second Preterite of Causals. 108. The second preterite is formed (according to r. 99. g.) by adding ām to the base of the conjugational tenses, and affixing to this the second preterite of some one of the auxiliaries as, bhū or kri; thus, from budh, bodhayām (ateTITA bodhayāmāsa or bodhayāmbabhūva+ or bodhayānchakāra).
* Thus, from adhi, “to go over” or “read,” comes adhyāpayati, “he causes to read” or “ teaches." + Few roots in m lengthen the a. Some, however, optionally do so.
It may be questioned whether bhū is ever found added to causals.
The First and Second Future of Causals. In these tenses the inserted iis invariably assumed between the base, as formed in the conjugational tenses, and the usual terminations. Thus, from budh, bodhayi (bodhayitāsmi, &c. ; bodhayishyāmi, &c.).
The Third Preterite of Causals. 109. In the formation of the base of this tense, the affix ay is rejected; but any other change that may take place in the conjugational tenses, such as the insertion of p or y, is preserved. The base is a reduplicated form of this change, and to this reduplication the augment a is prefixed. Thus, taking the bases bodhay and jāpay (caus. bases of budh, “ to know," and ji, “ to conquer”), and rejecting ay, we have bodh and jāp; and from these are formed the bases of the 3d pret., abūbudh and ajījap (geri abūbudham, fe., wistu ajījapum, fc., cf. the Greek pluperfect). The rule for this reduplication is as follows:— The initial consonant of the root, with its vowel, are reduplicated, and the reduplicated consonant follows the rules given at r. 99.; but the reduplication of the vowel is peculiar.
Rules for the Reduplication of the Vowel of the Initial Consonant. Causal bases, after rejecting ay, will end either in āy, āv, ār, or a consonant preceded by a, ā, e, o, or ar. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these vowels except o, is i. But u is reduplicated for o, and sometimes also for āv. In general, this reduplicated vowel is made long, and to compensate for this, the long vowel of the causal base shortened, or, if it be Guna, changed to its cognate short vowel. Thus, the causal base nāy (from nī, rejecting ay) makes the base of the 3d pret. anīnay (anīnayam, &c.); the causal base bhāv (from bhū) makes abībhav; the causal base kār (from kri), achikar; gam (from gam), ajīgam ; pāch (from pach), apīpach; pāl (from pā), apīpal ; ved (from vid), avīvid ; vart (from vrit), avīvrit. But bodh (from budh), abūbudh; and sāv (from su), asūşhav. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel is only long by position before two consonants, the radical vowel being still made short; as, shrāv (from shru) makes ashushrav; drāv (from dru), adudrav ; bhrāj, abibhraj. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the vowel of the causal base, which must be long either by nature or position, remains unchanged. Thus, the causal base jīv (from jīv) may make ajijīv; chint, achichint; kalp, achikalp. In such cases a may be reduplicated for a or ā; as, laksh makes alalaksh ; yāch, ayayāch ; vart (from vrit) avavart, fc.f
† The following bases of the 3d preterite are formed anomalously from causal Rules for the Reduplication of an Initial Vowel. If a root begin with a vowel this vowel is not reduplicated, only coalescing with the augment a according to the rule, p. 64.; but the reduplicated form of the final consonant, with the vowel i, is inserted between the augment and vowel thus coalescing, and the final consonant. Thus the root aksh makes āchiksh p. 75. b. (āchiksham, &c.); arh, ārjih ; āp, āpip; ād($3), aidid; üh, aujh ; ridh, ārdidh.
The Benedictive and Conditional of Causals. 110. The base of these tenses does not differ from that of the non-conjugational tenses ; ay is retained, and after it the inserted i invariably assumed; excepting in the benedictive paras., where both ay and i are rejected. Thus, from budh, the bases bodh, bodhayi, abodhayi (bodhyāsam, fc.; bodhayishīya, fc.; ubodhayishyam, fc.).
Every root in the language may take a passive form. It is a form, however, little used, except in the 3d person sing. and plural of the present and imperative; for although a passive construction is exceedingly common in Sanscrit syntax, yet almost all the tenses of the passive verb are expressed by participles.
Our reasons for denominating the passive a distinct derivative from the root rather than a voice of the primitive, and for considering that the 4th conjugation of primitives results from the occasional assumption of a parasmaipada form* by this passive verb, have been already given(see pp. 58. 62.).
111. Passive verbs are conjugated with the regular ātmanepada
bases, apžyy from pāy (pā, “to drink"); atishthip from sthāp (sthā, “ to stand"); adhyajāgap from adhyāp (i,“ to go," with adhi); ajighrip from ghrāp.
* The 4th conjugation can hardly be said to possess an ātmanepada ; or if so, then its ātmanepada is identical with the passive. And it seems probable that those ātmanepada verbs, such as pad,“ to go,” and budh,“ to know,” which are placed under the 4th conjugation, are in reality passive verbs; at any rate, the forms given for their 3d preterites (apādi, abodhi) can only belong to passives.
† That the passive does occasionally take the terminations of the parasmaipada is corroborated by Bopp, who gives several instances; as, chhidyet for chhidyeta. Nal. xiv. 6.; mokshyasi for mokshyase, “ thou shalt be liberated.” Other instances may be found in Westergaard ; as, vidyati for vidyate.
inflections; that is, in the conjugational tenses they conform to the scheme for the atm. at p. 63., and in the non-conjugational tenses to the general schemes at p. 73., p. 81., and p. 84.
In the third preterite they take the first two forms (p. 81.), according as the root may admit the inserted i or not; but require that, in the 3d pers. sing. of both forms, the termination be invariably i (3) in place of ishta and sta.
Conjugational Tenses. 112. In the formation of these the passive verb is to be treated like a regular primitive of the 4th conjugation ; that is, in general the only change made in the root is the affixing of y; but before this aílix certain changes of a final vowel may take place, some of which are analogous to those of the 4th conj. A final ā, e, ai, or o are changed to ī; as, from dā, the base dīy (3d sing. ciga); so also dhā, pā, sthā, hā, mā;. so also gai, " to sing,” (gły).
a. If in i or u, or a semi-vowel preceded by i or u, these vowels are lengthened : as, from ji, jāy; from hu, hūy; from div, dīvy.
b. If in ri, this vowel becomes firi; as, from 5, the base kriy (foruñ); but ar, if two consonants precede; as from smri, smary.
c. If in urī, this vowel becomes ir : as, from a krī, “ to scatter," kīry (orizia, &c.). But from prī, pūry.
d. Roots ending in two consonants, of which the first is a nasal, usually reject the nasal : as, from bandh, badhy; from stambh, stabhy; from sanj (HF), sajy. From comes from (p. 70. e.).
e. Jan, khan, and tan, may optionally reject the final nasal, but the a is then lengthened: as, from jan, jāy or jany (Frun or paint).
f. From vach, vad, vap, vas, swap, come the bases uchy, udy, upy, ushy, supy : from grah, prachh, and vyadh, the bases grihy (Tua, &c.), prichhy, vidhy: from yaj, hwe, ve, come ijy, hūy, ūy.
Non-conjugational Tenses.-Second Preterite of Passives. The base of this tense in the passive verb is identical with that of all primitive verbs. The bases, therefore, as formed at p. 74., will serve equally well for the 2d preterite of the passive, provided only that they be restricted to the ātmanepada inflection.
The First and Second Future of Passives. 113. In these and the remaining tenses no variation can occur