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Amomalous Modes of forming the Second Preterite. There are many anomalous ways of forming the base of the 2d pret. a. Roots onding in a (as, da, “ to give'; sthā, “ to stand'; /ā, “ to go,' &c.) drop the a bofore all the terminations, except tha, and substitute au for that of the Ist and ad sing. par. Hence, the bases dad, tasth, //// (ददौ। dadau, तस्यो tasthauं, ययो /ayau; dual, dadiru, tasthira, /ayica). Similarly roots in ai, as gai (.jugau)U. Roots ending in the vowel ri, in accordance with r. 98, change ri to tir in the Ist and 8d sing., and to ar in the 2d sing., and before the other terminations retain the wowel ri changeable to r ; but roots in which ri is preceded by a double consonant, and most roots in long ri, instead of retaining this wowel, change it to ar in the dual and plur. par., and conseguently throughout the ātm. Thus, from smri, sing- susmāra, sasmaritha, sasmdra, dual sasmariba, &c. ; ātm. sasmare, &c. c. Roots beginning with any ५.onsonant, and ending with a single consonant, and inclosing a short a, lengthen tho a in the lst and 8d sing. : as, from pach, “ to cook,' papāch s from t/tij, “ to guit,'' tatyāj (tat/tiju, tat/gjitha, tatyāja, tati/gjipa, &c.). Moreower, before ithu and in the dual and plur. par., and all the persons of the atm., if the initial as well as the final consonant of the root be single, the a is changed to e, and, to compensate for this, the reduplication suppressed. Thus, from pach come the two bases pupticl and pech (papticha,pechitha or papaktha,popāclia,pechita ; ātm. peche, &c.); from labh, iिtm. “ to obtain " (cf Aaa3avo, dxa3ov), the base lebl throughout (lebhe, lebhislle, labhe, lebhioahe, &c.).* d, Roots of this last kind, that reguire a substituted consonant in the reduplication, are excepted from the rule (but not bhaj and phal). So, also, certain roots beginning with o are excepted. These reguire that the reduplicated syllable be u, or the corresponding vowel of the semi-vowel, and change ca of the r00t to u before every termination, except those of the sing. par., the two u's then blending into one long one. Thus, from oach, “ to speak,'' come the two bases atrāch and och (ucācha, āchatuh, achuh). A similar rule is applied in /tj, “ to sacrifice” (iyāja, ijatuh, ful).
` The first future (as noticed by Bopp) results from the union of the nom. case of the noun of agency (formed with the affix तृ ८ri, r. 41.) with the present tense of the verb, as, “ to be.' Thus, taking datri, "a giver" (declined p. 37.), and combining its nom. case with asmi and he, we have datāsmi and datāhe, “ I am a giver," identical with the lst pers. Sing. par. and ātm. of the lst fut., “ I will give.' So also datāsi and datāse, “ thou art a giver," or “ thou wilt give.' In the Ist and 2d persons dual and plur. the sing. of the noun is joined with the dual and plur. of the auxiliary. In the ad person the auxiliary is omitted, and the 3d pers. sing. dual and plur. of the lst future in both voices is then identical with the nom. case sing. dual and plur. of the noun of agency. Thus, datā, “a giver," or “ he will give "; datāraad, “ two givers," or “ they two will give," &c." The second future, in its terminations, Stands in close relationship with the present tense, the only difference being that &y is prefixed.
* I9xcept āp, “ to obtain," and roots having an initial a before two consonants. । t The future signification inliorent in the noun of agency datti, secms implied in
Latin ly the relation of dator to daturus.
The invariable rule for the formation of the base of both future tenses is, that the Guma be substituted for the vowel of the root": thus, from ji, “ to conguer," the base.je (jetasmi.jeshyami); from shru, “ to hear," the base shro (श्रोतास्मि, श्रोष्यामि), And the general rule, moreover, is, that if the root end in a consonan’, the vowel i be inserted between the base and terminations. Thus, from Dud/ comes the base Godhi (वोधितास्मि ८odhitāsmi, &c. ; बोधिष्यामि Godhishyāmi, &c.). This insertion of i, the manifest object of which is to prevent the coalition of consonants, is unfortunately, however, forbidden in about one hundred roots, Some of which are of very commion occurrence ; and the combination of the radical Consonant with the initial f and s of the terminations, will reduire an ac५uaintance with the rules already laid down at p. 67. When these rules are ac(Juired, there will be no difficulty in the formation of these tenses, । The only guestion is, how are we to distinguish between those roots which insert i, and those which do not P
The laws about to be laid down will determine this point, and it is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed towards them, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not confined to the two futures, but extends to many other parts of the verb; insomuch, that if the first future reject i, it is, as a mecessary conseguence, rejected in the third preterite, the ātm. of the benedictive, the conditional, the infinitive mood, the passive past participle, the indeclinable past participle, the future participle formed with the affix tatya, and the noun of agency formed with the affix tri ; and is, moreover, optionally rejected in the 2d pers. Sing. of the 2d pret., and decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by s instead of is/. So that the learner, if he know the first future, will pass on with great ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and should always look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, " to throw,' and finding the lst fut. to be ksheptāsmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore he knows the 2d future to be kshepsyāmi ; the 3d pret. to be akshaipsam ; the iिtm. of the benedictive, kshipsiya ; the conditional, akshepxyam ; the infinitive, ksheptum ; the passive past participle, kshipta ; the indeclinable part. ksheptmpā ; the future part. ksheptatya ; the noun of agency, ksheptri ; the 2d pers. sing. of the 2d pret. optionally c/ikshept/ta ; the desiderative, chikshipsanai. On the other hand, taking the root yāch, “ to ask,'' and finding the lst future to be (/āchitā, he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be yāchis/yāmi, ayāchisham, /āchis//a, dyāchis/.yam, 3/7chitum, Gytichita, /āchitroढ, /āchitatya, /āchitri, '/dyāc/itha, /dyāchishāmi, respectively. _ It is evident that roots ending in vowels do not re५uire i, and it may be taken as a general rule that they do not insert it : there are only a few exceptions, as follows : .
* Unless such substitution be forbidden according to r. 88. a.
OBS. In the following lists the ad pers. sing. of the Ist and 2d future is given after each root. a. Roots ending in ā ; as, Ghā, “ to be " (bharita, Dhariskyati), ८. Roots ending in r, as, तृ ८r, “ to pass" (tarita, taris//ati) : and in these, inserted i is optiofially lengthened (tarita, tariskyati), c. Roots ending in ri short insert i in the 2d future, although rejecting it in the first; as, कृ (kariskyāmi) ड् (hariskyāmi),