Imatges de pàgina
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u. दा, “ to give," in the par. drops the a before all except the e terminations, making its base dad, changeable to dat (dadati, dattah, dadati), and de before the hi of the imperat. Similarly, धा, “ to place," makes its base dadh before t), m, G), or a wowel, and dhe before hi ; but dhad before.t, th, or s (dudhāti, dhattah, dadhati).

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95. If a root be of the 7th conjugation, the base is formed by inserting na between the vowel and final consonant of the root, before

* This change of nu to mo is supplied in the corresponding Greek affix vu, by lengthening the u, as in te0१vuut, tetovujucv ; befkyuut, )efkvujuev. Bopp. f All the roots in this conjugation end in consonants.

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Bhai.j, “ to break," rejects its masal before ma is inserted. Hence the bases bhannj and bhai.j (bliamokti, bhansktah, bhai.janti).

Eig/// Conjugation.

96. The base in this conjugation is formed by the addition of a to the root, converted to the Guna o before the e terminations. There are only ten roots in this conjugation, nine of which are not in common use. Moreover, these nine all end in m, and therefore the addition of o and at will have the same effect as the addition of no and nad in the 5th conjugation. Thus, tamo and ’ana, from tan, “ to extend " (Ist Sing. pl. tanomi, tanuma/), cf rdvujut, r4vupte). But the tenth root in this class is कृ Kri, “ to do," by far the most common and useful root in the language. This root not only converts the conjugational affix ta to the Guna o before the P terminations, but also changes the radical vowel ri। to the Guna ar before these Same terminations, and before the other terminations to ar (/karoti, kuruta/, kurganti), and rejects the conjugational a before r, m, y (lst plur. kurmah),

JWint/ Conjugation.

97. If a root be of the 9th conjugation, the base is formed by

* Similarly, n is inserted in certain Greck and Latin roots; as, Jua0, adu0avo ; ?\a,3, Aa।,3avo ; 0tm, 0toryavo ; scid, *cindo ; fid,.findo ; ta:/, tango ; /i//, /in/tto, &c. f The final t of the base may be dropped, bhintal ; so, also, rundhala for


adding na to the root before the P terminations, and mā before all the others, excepting those beginning with vowels, where only m is added. Thus, from pā, “ to purify,' are formed the three bases punā, punं, and pun (pttnati punitah, punanti). This root, with some others ending in long vowels (as, dhā, “ to shake "; li, “ to

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Observe, that by reason of r. 30. (with note), the most freguent form of the terminations. of the second future is shyāmi, &c.

* The letter ह although oompounded with the nasal does not prevent the opera_ tion L


Second Preferite.

98. The first step in the formation of the base of this tense is the reduplication of the initial consonant of the root with its vowel, or of the initial vowel : thus, from Uud/, “ to know,' bubad/ ; and if the root end in a consonant, the radical vowel takes Guna before the terminations of the sing. par., but before all the other terminations reverts to its original form ; hence, the two bases babodh, bubudh (Gubodha, Dubodhitha, Dubodho, dual Gubudhica, /ubudhathuh, &c., ātm. bubudhe, &c.) : if in a vowel, this vowel takes Wriddhi in the lst* and ad sing. par., and Guna in the 2d, and before all the other terminations, both par. and ātm., reverts to its original form : thus, from mā, “ to lead,'' the bases minai, mine, nini (nināya, r. S., ninayitha r. I0. or ninetha, nināya, ninyica," ninya//at/, &c., ātm. minye, &c.); so also from kri, the bases chakār, chakar, chakri, (chakāra, chakartha, dual chakrira); and from dhā, the bases dudhaad, dud/io, but in dual, plur. &c. dudhuc' (dudhāra. r. 8., dudharitha r. l0. or dud/otha, dudhāpa, dudharica, &c., ātm. dud/are, &c.). B/ā, “ to be," is anomalous, making its base babhāp before all the terminations.

Observe, that all the terminations of this tense begin with vowels. It is indicated, however, in the scheme, that an initial o is sometimes rejected in the 2d pers. sing. This i may be optionally rejected in those roots only in which (as we shall afterwards see)

tion of r. 2I., and according to the same rule, kri, “ to buy,” 9th conj., makes its bases krānā, krini, krāa (क्रीणाति, क्रीणीत:, क्रीणन्ति). _ * All Grammarians assert that there is an optional change to Guna in the lst pers., but this is never found. f By a Special rule, the ? of the base is here changed to the semi-vowel instoad of following r. 4. IBut roots ending in i or ं, of which the initial consonant is double, change i or o to iy before these same vowel terminations, that is, before all oxcopting the sing. par. ; hence, from श्रि come the three bases shishrai, shishre, and shishri/. * -4// rools ending in tt or i change a or क to au before those vowel torminations; excepting, of course, the roots श्रु, तु, दु, चुः in the persons marked with *.

it is necessarily rejected in the futures.* In the other persons the i marked with * is retained in every root in the language, except eight, viZ. वृ, “ to do "; भृ, “ to bear "; श्रु, “ to hear "; स्तु, “ to praise," मृ, “ to go," &e., all ending in vowels. Hence it happens that consonants can never come into coalition, except in the 2d pers. sing. of this tense. Its formation, therefore, is not attended with any difficulties of consonantal combination. There are certain rules, however, to be acduired, relative to the reduplication of an initial consomant with its vowel, and an initial vowel. With regard to the vowel belonging to the initial consonant, a is reduplicated for a, ā, ri, or ? ; । for i, ?, or e ; a for u, ti, or o : as, from da, dadau ; from tri, tatāra ; from ser, sishera ; from pti, pupāra.

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Reduplication of"am Imitial Wouel. /ः If a root ending in a single consonant begin with a, i, or u, these wowels are repeated, and the two similar vowels blend into one long one. Thus, fisa from a and as, ** to be''; Gpa from u and o7p, r. 4. ; the dual oंlatul from i and ish ; fikhatuh। from u and ukh : but in the sing. of the last two cases, the radical i or n taking

* Thus, paclः, “to cook,' forbids i in the future ; therefore the 2d sing. is oither papaktha or pechitha. So also n?, “ to load,' minn/itha or minetho, as abowo. f So in the Greek, rdtlaTrat from 0aTrro ; TreptAnka from pt?\co.

; Grammarians assert that the short a is optionaily retained in the first porson.

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