Imatges de pàgina

fifty common roots belonging to the 2d, ad, pth, 7th, Sth, and 0th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all.

The student, however, who wishes for a continuous Survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and proceed at once to Sect. III.

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* This irregular Scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme

given by native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare



These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit conjugation ; for they not only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also re५uire a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular Scheme, and more especially in this, that the terminations begin generally with consomants instead of vowels.

In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 8l. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial s or d of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, reguires an acguaintance with the following rules.

Combination of final ch and j, roith t, th, and S.

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Combination of final dh and bh, ?rith t, th, and S.

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this with the regular scheme at p. 68, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of werbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular Scheme, would amount to about eight thousand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred ; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. f*. This is another proof that native Grammarians are altogether wanting in clear

logical arrangement of their Subject.

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Similarly the final of दुह्, before the termination dhi of the imperat.,

* There is a very remarkable parallel to this in the Greek rpepo, making in the

future (),c\|ro, noticed by Prof IBopp.

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92. If the root be of the 2d conjugation, the base is formed by substituting the Guna vowel for the vowel of the root, before those terminations only that are marked with P : before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root is retained.* Thus, from ria/, “ to know," is formed the base of the singular present, ped (pedmi, &c.), the base of the dual and plur. cid (ridirah, &e); from dirish, “ to hate," the bases dicesh and dicish' ः from i, “ to go," the bases e and i (lst sing. emi, cf cia' ; lst pl. imah, cf tite); from जागृ, “ to awake,".jāgar and jigri (ad sing. du. pl.j7garti, jigrita/, jagrati.t r. 7.),

a. Those roots of this and the 3d and 7th conj. whose bases end in consonants reject the terminations of the 2d and 8d pers. sing. lst pret. (excepting ad, “ to eat," which inserts a before / ind ). But the final of the base is changed analogously to crudes of the Sth class in the nom. case (see p. 27. r. 45.). Thus, sing acedam, are’, aret. 4dicesham, adicet (अद्वेट्), &c. They also take dhā for hi in the imperative.$

* Bopp has noticed a corresponding lengthening of the vowel of the root before certain terminations in Greek. Cf. 00out, ){bouev, eijut, 1aev.

f The other forms of the base of dupish are seen in r. 9I. e..f

; Roots of more than one syllable, and.jaksh, “ to eat,” and shis, “ to rule,' and all roots of the 8d conjugation, necessarily reject the nasal of the 8d plur., of the pres, and imp. paras., and take al for an in the Bd plur. Ist pret. Some other roots in the 2d conj. optionally take tal for on ; as, rid, durish, pti, I//i.

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h. Roots like ad, “ to eat" ; pā, “ to protect " ; /ti, “ to go," having no Guna Substitute, do not change at all (admi, &c. ; ptimi, &c. ; //inai, &c.). But daridrā, par. “ to be poor,' makes its base daridri before the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, uh, atu (8d pers. sing. dual, plur. daridriti, daridritah, daridrati), see note marked ं, p. 60.

c. The root stu, “ to praise,” and some others in u, take Wriddhi before the cons0nantal P terminations,* changing at to ttu before the vowel terminations. Hence, the three bases, stotu, stu, stut (stattti, stutah, stubamti). Similarly, si7, दॊtm. ** to bring forth," makes suu before the vowel terminations (sate, subtite, sutate) * ब्रू bro, “ to speak,'' makes brati before the consonantal P terminations, and brur before the vowel terminations. Hence, in the par., the three bases, hruno, brin, brut (brariti, brhtah, brupamti) ; and in the atm. the two bases bro, bruu (Urate, brupate, brucate).

d. Rud, “ to weep," besides the usual Guna change, adds i to the root before all the consonantal terminations except /. Hence the three bases rodi, ratdi, rud (roditi, ruditah, rudanti). Similarly, but without Guna, the roots strop, “ to sleep,'' shunas and am, ** to breathe,' .juksh, “ to eat.'' Ham, “ to kill,'' makes its base ha before t or th : ghn before anti, am, dntat y and.ju before hi (honti, hatah, Ghmanti ; 2d pers. imp..jahi).

e. शास् , “to rule," makes its base शिम् before t, th (which then become t, th) and /, and changes its final to t in the 2d and Bd sing. Ist pret. (oshāt)

./ः स्रस्as, “ to be,” rejects its initial a, except in the Ist pret., and except before the P terminations of the other tenses.

दुह् , ** to milk," and। लिह् , * to lick,'' form their bases as seen at r. 01. h, i.

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03. If a root be of the 3d conjugation, the base is formed by the reduplication of the initial consonant and vowel of the root, a being the reduplicated vowel for ā, i for o or ri, and a for ā ; and in the reduplication of the consonant, an unaspirated letter being substituted for an aspirated, and j for /. Besides the reduplication of the root, the radical syllable is subjected to the Guna change, but only before the e terminations, as in the 2d conj.

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* By “ the consonantal = terminations' is meant those terminations marked

with P which begin with consonants.

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