Imatges de pàgina

fifty common roots belonging to the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, Sth, and 9th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all.

The student, however, who wishes for a continuous survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and proceed at once to Sect. III.


OF THE 20, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, AND 9th CONJUGATIONS.




Present Tense.


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mi p vah mah

vahe mahe si or shi i thah tha

se or she


dhwe ti p 1 tah Tanti or ati I te


First Preterite. am P ma

vahi mahi hp tam

thāh āthām dhwam tām an or uh ta


Potential. yām yāvayāma żya

īvahi limahi yātam yūta athāh īyāthām ūdhwam yātām \yuh

līyātām īran

Imperative. āni p ava Plama P ai p āvahai Samahai p hi or dhi tam ta

swa or shwa ātrām dhwam tu p tām antu or atul tām ātām atām

Obs. The terminations read downwards; thus, mi is the 1st pers. sing., si the 2d sing., ti the 3d. The mark P placed after certain terminations indicates that certain peculiar changes, to be afterwards explained, take place in the root before these terminations.

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* This irregular scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme given by native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE CONJUGATIONAL TENSES. These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit conjugation ; for they not only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also require a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular scheme, and more especially in this, that the terminations begin generally with consonants instead of vowels.


In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 81. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial s ort of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, requires an acquaintance with the following rules.

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Combination of final dh and bh, with t, th, and s. a. Final y dh and bh, before t and th, are changed, the one to d, the other to b, and both t and th then become dh. Thus,

this with the regular scheme at p. 63, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of verbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular scheme, would amount to about eight thousand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. 63. This is another proof that native Grammarians are altogether wanting in clear logical arrangement of their subject.

rundh with tah or thah becomes equally runddhah (Fro:); labh with tāhe, labdhāhe (CHE).

6. Final dh and bh, before s, are changed (by r. 13.), the one to é the other to p. Thus, runadh with si becomes runatsi ; sedh with syūmi, setsyūmi; labh with sye, lapsye. And if the initial of the root be d or b, the aspirate, which has been rejected in the final, is thrown back on the initial; as, bodh with sye, bhotsye. *

Combination of final sh, q șh, # s, with t, th, s, dh. c. Final , sh, before 1 and th, is changed to a sh; and the t, th, take the cerebral form 7, 7: thus, $with te, fq; and is with thāh, 287:

d. Similarly, final şh, before t and th, requires the change of t, th, to ? . Thus, žy with ti, afe; and fry with thah, fax:.

c. Final sh orq şh, before s, are changed to k, the s then becoming sh (r. 30. note): thus, a, with si, afa; hq with si, ara; yt with syāmi, gen.

f. Final y or q , before the termination dhi of the imperat., are changed to y d, the dhi becoming fa dhi. Thus, fay with dhi, fagfa. Similarly with dhwam, fasc.

g. Final # s, before the termination dhi of the imperat., is either dropped, or changed to d. Thus, chakās with dhi, either chakadhi or chakaddhi ; शास् with dhi, शाधि; हिंम् with dhi, हिंद्धि.

Combination of final ş h with t, th, and s. h. Final [ h, before t and th, is changed to g, and both t and th then become y dh. Thus, duh (EF) with tah or thah becomes equally dugdhah; dah (FE) with tāsmi, dagdhūsmi. But if the root begin with any other letter but d or n, then its final z coalesces with the t or th of the termination into a dh; and the radical vowel, if short, is lengthened : as, F with ta, 4T; Fe with ta, रूढ ; leh (लेह) with ti, ledhi (लेढि); and रोह with tasmi, रोढास्मि. Similarly the final of ge, before the termination dhi of the imperat.,

* There is a very remarkable parallel to this in the Greek tpeow, making in the future Opeysw, noticed by Prof. Bopp.

becomes dugdhi (efru); and the final of for blends with the same termination into dh (wife).

i. Final Eh before 8, follows the analogy of final and q, and is changed to k, which blends with s into a ksh. Thus, leh with si becomes lekshi ; de with syūmi, dah. And if the initial of the root be d or g, the aspirate which has been changed to k is thrown back on the initial. Thus, doh (at) with si, dhokshi ; दह with syāmi, धक्ष्यामि ; अगुह with sam, अधुक्षं.

Second Conjugation. 92. If the root be of the 2d conjugation, the base is formed by substituting the Guna vowel for the vowel of the root, before those terminations only that are marked with P: before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root is retained.* Thus, from vid, “ to know,” is formed the base of the singular present, ved (vedmi, &c.), the base of the dual and plur. vid (vidwah, &c.): from dwish, “to hate," the bases dwesh and dwisht : from i, “to go," the bases e and i (1st sing. emi, cf. ciui; Ist pl. imah, cf. suev): from air,“ to awake,jāgar and jāgri (3d sing. du. pl. jāgarti, jāgritah, jāgrati, r. 7.).

a. Those roots of this and the 3d and 7th conj. whose bases end in consonants reject the terminations of the 2d and 3d pers. sing. Ist pret. (excepting ad, “to eat,” which inserts a before h and t). But the final of the base is changed analogously to crudes of the 8th class in the nom. case (see p. 27. r. 45.). Thus, sing. avedam, avet, avet. Adwesham, adwet (ET), &c. They also take dhi for hi in the imperative.s

* Bopp has noticed a corresponding lengthening of the vowel of the root before certain terminations in Greek. Cf. díòwu, didojev, cíui, iwev. † The other forms of the base of dwish are seen in r. 91. e. f.

Roots of more than one syllable, and jaksh, “to eat,” and shūs, “ to rule,” and all roots of the 3d conjugation, necessarily reject the nasal of the 3d plur., of the pres., and imp. paras., and take uh for an in the 3d plur. 1st pret. Some other roots in the 2d conj. optionally take uh for an; as, vid, dwish, , .

§ Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas yfy (kdvor).

b. Roots like ad, “to eat”; , “ to protect ”; , “to go,” having no Guna substitute, do not change at all (admi, fc.; pūmi, 8c. ; yāmi, &c.). But daridrā, par. “to be poor,” makes its base daridri before the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, uh, atu (3d pers. sing. dual, plur. daridrāti, daridritah, daridrati), see note marked I, p. 69.

c. The root stu, “ to praise," and some others in u, take Vriddhi before the consonantal P terminations,* changing u to uv before the vowel terminations. Hence, the three bases, stau, stu, stuv (stauti, stutah, stuvanti). Similarly, , ātm. “to bring forth,” makes suv before the vowel terminations (sūte, suvāte, suvate); a brī,“ to speak,” makes bravī before the consonantal P terminations, and bruv before the vowel terminations. Hence, in the par., the three bases, bravi, brū, bruv (bravīti, brūtuh, bruvanti); and in the ātm. the two bases brī, bruv (brūte, bruvāte, bruvate).

d. Rud,to weep,” besides the usual Guna change, adds i to the root before all the consonantal terminations except y. Hence the three bases rodi, rudi, rud (roditi, ruditah, rudanti). Similarly, but without Guna, the roots swap, “ to sleep,” shwas and an, “to breathe," jaksh, to eat.” Han, “ to kill,” makes its base ha before t or th ; ghn before anti, an, antu; and ja before hi (hanti, hatah, ghnanti ; 2d pers. imp. jahi).

e. A , “ to rule,” makes its base fyty before t, th (which then become t, th) and y, and changes its final to t in the 22 and 3d sing. 1st pret. (ashāt).

f. w as,“ to be,” rejects its initial a, except in the 1st pret., and except before the P terminations of the other tenses.

CF, “to milk," and foe, “to lick,” form their bases as seen at r. 91. h, i.

Third Conjugation. 93. If a root be of the 3d conjugation, the base is formed by the reduplication of the initial consonant and vowel of the root, a being the reduplicated vowel for ā, i for ī or ri, and u for ū; and in the reduplication of the consonant, an unaspirated letter being substituted for an aspirated, and j for h. Besides the reduplication of the root, the radical syllable is subjected to the Guna change, but only before the P terminations, as in the 2d conj.

* By “the consonantal F terminations" is meant those terminations marked with P which begin with consonants.

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