Imatges de pàgina
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। 79. The third personal pronoun तत् ‘a/, “ he," declined above, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify " that " or “ this'; and by prefixing e to it, another common pronoun is formed still more strongly demonstrative ; as, nom. एष: esha/ (r. 30.), टती etau, एते ete"; acc. टतं elam, &c. ; ins. एतेन etema, &c. There is another very common demonstrative pronoun, of which इदं idam, “ this," the nom. case neuter, is considered to be the crude, but is never used as Such.

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* The acc. m. may be खटनं , the acc. f. यनीं. f This pronoun affords the only example of the old form for tho instr. plur. of masculine

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8l. As the relative is formed by substituting y, so the interrogative by substituting K for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, nom. m. क: ka/), “ who ?" कौ /ंauं, के ke. In the nom. neut., however, the interrogative is किं kim and not kad.* Him is also the crude, and occurs in a few Compounds ; as, किमयं , “ on what account P'


82. These are formed by adding the affix /a (r. 38. xI.) to the crude of the personal pronouns; as, madiya, “ mine " (nom. -ah, -7, -am); tioadiya, “ thine '; asmadiya, '' our.' Observe, however, that the gen. case of the personal pronouns is more usually taken to express the possessive ; as, तस्य पुच:, “ his son."

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masculine nouns of the first class. This form is still preserved in the Wedas, and in
accordance with this, the instr. plur. of dera (r. 48.) would be derelltih.
* Kad, however, was the old form, and is retained in a few words; Such as
/kachchit, “ perhaps"; hadartha, “ useless" (“ of what use {'') ; hadadhuan, “ a bad
road" (“ what a road !').
f But the abl. and loc. sing. m., and nom. pl. m. may follow dera, r. 48.

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84. भवत् ८/arat, “ your honour," reguiring the ad person of the verb, is declined like dhanacat (r. 6l.). Thus, nom. ८/arān, b/iacandau, bharantah. It is used respectfully in place of the second personal pronoun ; as, )/apām dharmam karotu, "let your honour practise virtue.'


85. The indeclinable affixes chi/, api, and chama, added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus, nom. sing. mase. कश्चित् kashchi', “ somebody," “ any body '; acc. कश्चित् /kanchit ; inS. kenachit ; dat. kasmaichit ; loc. कस्मिंश्चित् kasminshchit (r. 20.); nom. plur. maSc. kechit. So also nom. को-पि Ko'pi, कश्चन kashchana, “ somebody "; ins. kenāpā, &c. By prefixing न, is formed the negative न कश्चित् , “ nobody.' + In the same way interrogative adwerbs are made indefinite. Thus, from kati, “ how many ?" katichit, “a few"; from kada, “ when?" kadāchit, “ at some

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86. This is expressed by prefixing the relative pronoun to the

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87. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the mature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tad (r. 77.). Thus, संच sarca, " all ': nom. masc. sarra/), sarpaa, sarre ; dat. sarrasmai ; nom. fem. sarpā, &c. ; dat. sarrasyai, &c. But the nom. neut. is sarram, &c., not sarrad. The following are the most useful of these pronominals. Eka, “ one'; prathama, “ first'; dipitāya, “ second"; tritāya, “ third"; alpa, “ few"; abha, “ both'; anya, “ other'; itara, “ other'; Katara, “ which of the two?' (the three last also follow tad in the nom. and acc. neut. anyat, itarat, katarat), But some of these are optionally declined like nouns of the first class ; thus, alpa, nom. plur, alpā/ or alpe.

* In modern Sanscrit mija often takes the place of sura ; as, निजगृहं गच्छति.

f Prof. Lassen cites a remarkable example from the Itamā/ama, in which स्रात्मन् refers to the dual number. Putram ātmanah sprishtua mipetatuh, “ they two fell down after touching their Son.' Anthol. p. ITI.



General Obsergatioms.

ALTHoUGH the Sanscrit verb will be found somewhat intricate by one who follows it through all its windings, yet such a general view of its structure as will be Sufficient to answer the practical wants of the general reader may be easily given, and as easily apprehended. There is no part of the grammar So capable as this of plain exoteric explanation, whilst there is none so obscured by the esoteric and mystical teaching of native grammarians ; none, of which the general principles are so few and so close to the surface, whilst the abstruser truthS, the miceties and refinements, are multiplied to an extent that tends to discourage, or even disgust the uninitiated learner. Hence it happens that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust his subject, is here not only compelled to embarass and perplex an otherwise simple statement, by the diffuse exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the ordinary student, but is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a

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