Imatges de pàgina
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The declension of Substantives involves that of adjectives ; and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives falling under the same class. Adjectives, in their simplest form, not derived from substantives, are very rarely found in Sanscrit. Such as do occur belong chiefly to the first and third classes of nouns ; as, priya, “ dear " (nom. m. f n. priyah, priyā, priyam,* r. 48. 49. 50); sadhu, “ good " (nom. m. f n. sādhuh, sādhul or sādhni, sādhuं, r. 54. 55. 49. 50),

Adjectives formed from substantices are very mumerous, as may be seen by a reference to r. 38. 42. and 43. Iv. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes of nouns. The following examples may be added to those already given ; māmusha, "human' (nom. m. f n. mānusha/), mānushi, māmusham, r. 48. 49. 50) ; 8/ar???ad/, “ prosperous' (nom. m. f n. shromān, s/krimata, shrāmat, r. 02); balin, “ strong " (nom. m. f n. bali, balimo, bali, r. 67.),

Compound adjectiues are most abundant. The following are examples : ;p/।alopeda, “ possessed-of-fruit '; durbuddhi, “ evil-minded '; alpatama, “ Small-bodied '; sarpdjit, “ all-conguering '; sagjammam, “ well-born '; gatachedas, “ bereft-of-Sense "; which are thus referrible to their respective classes.

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71. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways; Ist, by adding to the crude तर् tara (nom. -tarah, -tarā, -taram, of. Greek repog) for the comparative ; and तम tama (nom. -tama/),

* When it is remembered that final h often becomes s, and that d is eduivalent in pronunciation to u, the three genders of this adjective might be written priyus priyā, priyum ; thus offering a perfect similarity to ILatin adjectives in tts.

-rama, -tamain, cf Greek rorrog) for the Superlative. Thus, punya, " holy," पुण्यतर् punyatara, " more holy," पुण्यतम punyatama, “ most holy,' declined like nouns of the first class (r. 48. 49. 50.). So, also, dhanacad, “ wealthy,' dhamapattara, “ more wealthy,'' dhanaoattama, "most wealthy"; and dhamin, dhanitara, dhamitama (r. 20.f).

2dly, by adding हैश्यस् ६/as (nom. -āyām, -्/asं, -āyah, cf Greek toy) for the comparative, and इष्ट ishtha (nom. -ishtha/% -ishthā, -ishtham, cf Greek torrog) for the superlative. In general, the only change that takes place before these affixes is the rejection of a final vowel, or of an affix. Thus, balin, “ strong," becomes bal, making बलीयम् baliyas, “ stronger" (see r. 69.्र), बलिष्ठ 9alishtha “strongest " (declined like nouns of the first class); laghu, “ light,': becomes logh, making lag/iyas, " lighter," laghishtha, " lightest." Observe, however, that these affixes do not often imply comparison, but simply e.ccess : thus, balāyas and balishtha more usually signify “ very strong."

+ But besides the rejection of the final, the crude often undergoes considerable change, as in Greek; and its place is Sometimes Supplied by a substitute. Thus, mridu, “ soft,” becomes mrad, making mradi/as, maradishtha ; guru, “heavy," gur, making gariyas (cf Latin gratius), garishtha ; priya, **dear," pra, making preyus, preshtha ; bahu, “many," bhn, making bhTiyus, bhuyightha ; dirgha, “ long,'' drigh ; dira, “ far," dau' ; antika, “ near," med s kshudra, “ small," kshod; guram, “ young" /an s prashasya, “good," shru ; * alptt, “small," kam ; uru (eopts), “large," car, making pariyas, parishtha (Fāptorok). See Prof. Eastwick's translation of Bopp's Comp. Gram. S. 208.

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* Prof. Bopp derives shreyas and shreshtha from shrimat, “ fortunate," the

affix being rejected.

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74. Ordinals. Prathama, " first "; dipiti/a, “ Second '; ८ritāya, “ third "; are declined as pronominals (see r. 87.), Chaturtha, “ fourth " (ef. r6roprog); panchama, “ fifth "; 8/as///a (षष्ठ), “ sixth "; sapdama, " Seventh '; as/tama, “ eighth '; ;mapama, “ ninth '; dashama, “ tenth '; like nouns of the first class (nom. -al, -े, -am). The ordinals from “ eleventh " to “ twentieth," are formed from the cardinals, by rejecting the final m; thus, ekadasha (nom. -a/, -2, -am), “ Twentieth' is formed, either by adding the superlative affix tama to the cardinal, as pinshatitama ; Or by rejecting the final, and leaving cinsha (nom. -ah, -, -am). So also trinshattama or ८rins/ia, “ thirtieth.' Similarly “ fortieth '' and “ fiftieth.' The other decimal cardinals form the ordinals either by adding dama, or by changing ti to ta ; as, saptatitama or soptada, " Seventieth.”

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PRONOUNS have no crude state analogous to that of nouns, that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on which all the Cases are constructed.

The guestion then arises, what form of the pronoun is used in the formation of compound words. In the pronouns of the first and second persons, the ablative cases, Singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and accusative cases neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general and comprehensive state of the pronoun. These cases, therefore, discharge the office of a crude, and are constantly found at the commencement of compound words.


75. मत् mat, “ I," is taken for the crude of the sing. ; and स्रस्मत् asmat, “ we," for the crude of the plur. of the first personal pronoun.

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76. त्वत् ticat, “ thou," is taken for the orude of the sing, ; and युष्मत् /ashmat, “ you," for the crude of the plural of the second personal pronoun.

* The acc. sing. may also be मा ; the dat., gen. मे ; the acc., dat., gen. dual नो ; the acc., dat., gen. plur. न: (cf Lat. nos),

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